Waste disposal (251 - 300 of 303 items)
Status of EPA's Remedial Cleanup Efforts
RCED-85-86: Published: Mar 20, 1985. Publicly Released: Apr 29, 1985.
In response to a congressional request, GAO reported on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) progress in cleaning up the nation's worst hazardous waste sites during the first 4 years of the Superfund Program. The report focused on: (1) the extent to which EPA believes that the worst sites have been cleaned up under its remedial program; and (2) the status and funding of ongoing remedial act...
Efforts To Clean Up DOD-Owned Inactive Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites
NSIAD-85-41: Published: Apr 12, 1985. Publicly Released: Apr 23, 1985.
In response to a congressional request, GAO evaluated the status of the Department of Defense's (DOD) Installation Restoration Program (IRP), which is a program to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act's requirements for cleanup of DOD hazardous waste sites.DOD has identified 473 military bases that require assessments to identify potentially hazardo...
Illegal Disposal of Hazardous Waste: Difficult To Detect or Deter
RCED-85-2: Published: Feb 22, 1985. Publicly Released: Apr 5, 1985.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO studied issues related to illegal hazardous waste disposal to determine whether: (1) information regarding illegal disposal is available; (2) the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and states can identify hazardous waste generators and the types and quantities of waste that they produce; (3) the hazardous waste transportation manifest system effectively...
GAO Superfund Work
126524: Mar 26, 1985
GAO discussed its work in the area of hazardous waste disposal and issues to be considered during congressional debates on the reauthorization of the Superfund program. The testimony focused on the extent of the hazardous waste problem, the status of cleanup efforts, and the projected cost of cleaning up the nation's most hazardous waste sites. GAO found that the Environmental Protection Agency (E...
Clearer EPA Superfund Program Policies Should Improve Cleanup Efforts
RCED-85-54: Published: Feb 6, 1985. Publicly Released: Feb 13, 1985.
In response to a congressional request, GAO examined the types of removal actions taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at hazardous waste sites under its Superfund program and whether existing legislation allows for more comprehensive cleanup of contamination by the removal program.GAO found that: (1) from December 1980 to February 1984, EPA finished immediate removal actions at 165...
Department of Energy's Initial Efforts To Implement the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982
RCED-85-27: Published: Jan 10, 1985. Publicly Released: Jan 10, 1985.
GAO reviewed the Department of Energy's (DOE) efforts to implement the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in the areas of: (1) identifying waste disposal sites; (2) financing the waste disposal program through user fees; and (3) establishing an organization to carry out the program.GAO found that DOE met its statutory milestones for notifying the affected states that it identified repository locations for f...
Taxing Hazardous Waste: Economics, Design, and Implementation
126471: Jan 1, 1985
This article, which appeared in the GAO Review, Vol. 20, Issue 1, Winter 1985, describes the financial management of the Superfund program to clean up hazardous waste sites. The taxing authority of the fund will end on September 30, 1985, and Congress is considering reauthorization of the program and is discussing the implementation of a waste-end tax to create an economic incentive to reduce the...
EPA Could Benefit From Comprehensive Management Information on Superfund Enforcement Actions
RCED-85-3: Published: Dec 28, 1984. Publicly Released: Dec 28, 1984.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the extent of management information available to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in carrying out its enforcement responsibilities under the Superfund program.GAO found that, while EPA headquarters and regional offices have individual management information systems for tracking Superfund enforcement actions, there is no such system that c...
Hazardous Waste Management at Tinker Air Force Base
125843: Dec 13, 1984
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed its review of hazardous waste management at an Air Force base in Oklahoma concerning the following areas: (1) reducing hazardous waste generation through treatment and recycling; (2) problems associated with the full and effective utilization of an industrial waste treatment plant; and (3) improvements which are needed in the monitoring and contro...
An Analysis of Issues Concerning "Acid Rain"
RCED-85-13: Published: Dec 11, 1984. Publicly Released: Dec 11, 1984.
GAO examined the issues involved in the decision on controlling acid deposition, or acid rain. GAO also examined: (1) whether available scientific information could indicate clearly the appropriateness of beginning control action; and (2) the current state of knowledge on the subject.GAO found that, because the Clean Air Act currently focuses on concentrations of pollutants near their sources, any...
Status of DOE Implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 as of September 30, 1984
RCED-85-42: Published: Oct 19, 1984. Publicly Released: Oct 19, 1984.
In response to a congressional request, GAO reported on: (1) the progress which the Department of Energy (DOE) is making in meeting deadlines legislated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; (2) the status of the Nuclear Waste Fund; and (3) DOE management reorganization, information system development, and personnel initiatives.The act established several program requirements and set deadlines for DOE...
Status of Civilian Federal Agencies' Efforts To Address Hazardous Waste Problems on Their Lands
RCED-84-188: Published: Sep 28, 1984. Publicly Released: Sep 28, 1984.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO determined: (1) what actions have been taken by federal civilian agencies to comply with provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which require them to identify federal sites which potentially contain hazardous wastes; and (2) the status of ongoing and planned agency actions to assess and correct haza...
Inspection, Enforcement, and Permitting Activities at New Jersey and Tennessee Hazardous Waste Facilities
RCED-84-7: Published: Jun 22, 1984. Publicly Released: Jul 11, 1984.
In response to a congressional request, GAO reviewed activities associated with the federal hazardous waste regulatory program and compliance under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This report discusses how the program is being carried out in Tennessee and New Jersey and updates a prior report by identifying corrective actions the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken.GAO note...
Status of the DOD Installation Restoration Program at Mather Air Force Base and Sacramento Army Depot
NSIAD-84-56: Published: Feb 29, 1984. Publicly Released: Feb 29, 1984.
The Department of Defense's Installation Restoration Program (IRP) was established to: (1) identify and evaluate suspected problems associated with past hazardous waste disposal sites at military bases; and (2) control the migration of hazardous environmental contamination from those sites. Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO made a limited review of the status of IRP work at two military ins...
Establishment of Nuclear Waste Repositories
B-164105: Published: Jun 19, 1978. Publicly Released: Jan 4, 1984.
No summary is currently available...
EPA and State Inspection, Enforcement, and Permitting Activities at Hazardous Waste Facilities
122839: Nov 16, 1983
Testimony was presented concerning a GAO report on inspection, enforcement, and permitting activities at hazardous waste facilities. GAO found that many facilities are not complying with federal regulations requiring the owners and operators of certain hazardous waste facilities to institute ground water monitoring programs or document their eligibility to waive monitoring requirements. Two primar...
Information on Disposal Practices of Generators of Small Quantities of Hazardous Wastes
RCED-83-200: Published: Sep 28, 1983. Publicly Released: Oct 28, 1983.
In response to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the problems caused by the disposal of hazardous waste into solid waste landfills by small-quantity generators of such waste.GAO found that: (1) although federal grants for small-quantity waste generator programs were eliminated in fiscal year 1982, officials in three of the four states visited by GAO indicated that they were able to increase st...
Interim Report on Inspection, Enforcement, and Permitting Activities at Hazardous Waste Facilities
RCED-83-241: Published: Sep 21, 1983. Publicly Released: Oct 5, 1983.
GAO reviewed the federal regulatory program for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, focusing on ground water monitoring, inspection and enforcement activities, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) permitting program for hazardous waste facilities. GAO performed this work in four states, all of which had primary inspection responsibility under interim authorization...
Siting of Hazardous Waste Landfills and Their Correlation With Racial and Economic Status of Surrounding Communities
RCED-83-168: Published: Jun 1, 1983. Publicly Released: Jun 14, 1983.
In response to a congressional request, GAO determined the correlation between the location of hazardous waste landfills and the racial and economic status of the surrounding communities in eight southeastern states. GAO also provided information on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site location standards and permitting procedures.GAO found that blacks make up the majority of the population i...
Information on Three Hazardous and Solid Waste Disposal Sites in Maryland
RCED-83-91: Published: Jan 14, 1983. Publicly Released: Jan 31, 1983.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO examined three hazardous and solid waste disposal sites in Maryland to determine how the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is progressing.Congress enacted the conservation legislation to regulate the management of hazardous waste and improve waste disposal practices. The act provides that, a...
Cleaning Up the Environment: Progress Achieved but Major Unresolved Issues Remain
CED-82-72: Published: Jul 21, 1982. Publicly Released: Jul 21, 1982.
With respect to efforts to clean up the nation's air, water, and land, GAO conducted a review to determine: (1) the progress made toward meeting key environmental goals; (2) how specific cities have coped with these mandates; and (3) what unresolved issues face the nation in the future.Overall, there has been progress toward meeting established environmental goals. The air is significantly cleaner...
Information on the Environmental Protection Agency's Enforcement Activities
CED-82-62: Published: Apr 1, 1982. Publicly Released: May 3, 1982.
In response to congressional concern, GAO provided information pertaining to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste enforcement activities. This information reviewed: (1) the change in EPA enforcement policy under the current Administration; (2) potential enforcement organizational problems; (3) problems in issuing enforcement guidance and policies to the regions; and (4) the elimin...
EPA's Progress in Implementing the Superfund Program
118136: Apr 20, 1982
Comments were presented on the results of a prior review of the Superfund Program which is designed to finance and clean up uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The fund is to be used by the federal government, primarily by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or a state government to clean up spilled toxic wastes and hazardous waste sites where the responsible party does not take appropriate...
Environmental, Economic, and Political Issues Impede Potomac River Cleanup Efforts
GGD-82-7: Published: Jan 6, 1982. Publicly Released: Jan 6, 1982.
GAO reviewed the difficulties state and local governments and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have experienced over the past decade in implementing water quality programs in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. GAO selected the D.C. area for a case study concerning federally mandated water quality programs because many of the problems identified in this report are similar to those oc...
EPA Slow in Controlling PCB's
CED-82-21: Published: Dec 30, 1981. Publicly Released: Dec 30, 1981.
Various studies have associated the widely used polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) with a number of health problems. Industry has purchased over 1 billion pounds of PCB's for use in electric transformers and capacitors. Since PCB's have a potential for environmental harm, Congress passed a special provision under the Toxic Substances Control Act to control PCB's. With certain exceptions, the act pr...
Information on a Hazardous Waste Facility Containing Chromium Lead Sludge
CED-82-13: Published: Nov 9, 1981. Publicly Released: Nov 24, 1981.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO investigated a hazardous waste facility at which chromium lead sludge was being deposited in a wetland area as part of a hazardous waste disposal operation.The facility, which has been landfilling chromium lead sludge for 11 years, is located in a marshy area with an underground clay layer. This layer provides for the lateral flow of water or leachate from...
Hazardous Waste Facilities With Interim Status May Be Endangering Public Health and the Environment
CED-81-158: Published: Sep 28, 1981. Publicly Released: Oct 7, 1981.
When the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act was enacted, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was directed to develop regulations governing hazardous waste facilities. After much delay, EPA finally issued interim status requirements outlining minimum national requirements. GAO was requested to determine: (1) the extent to which facilities with interim status meet the EPA requirements; (2)...
Solid Waste Disposal Practices: Open Dumps Not Identified; States Face Funding Problems
CED-81-131: Published: Jul 23, 1981. Publicly Released: Jul 28, 1981.
GAO was requested to review the status of state solid waste management plans, the conduct of the open-dump inventory, and the impact of reduced funding on state solid waste activities.GAO found that over $47 million was awarded to states from October 1977 to March 1981 to develop state solid waste management plans and to conduct an open-dump inventory. However, plan development has been slow. No s...
Hazardous Waste Sites Pose Investigation, Evaluation, Scientific, and Legal Problems
CED-81-57: Published: Apr 24, 1981. Publicly Released: Apr 29, 1981.
Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a mandate to: (1) discover, investigate, evaluate, and respond to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites; (2) perform hazardous waste research; and (3) seek solutions to hazardous waste problems and, if necessary, file suit in federal courts.EPA has had difficulty in fulfilling its mandate because: (1) site...
Hazardous Waste Disposal: A Staggering Problem
116152: Jan 1, 1981
This article appeared in the GAO Review, Vol. 16, Issue 3, Summer 1981. A serious and potentially deadly problem is the growing volume of solid hazardous waste society produces. Less than 10 percent of the hazardous waste volume is disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. No part of the country is immune from the problem. Land disposal has been the predominant disposal method, but it present...
Hazardous Waste Disposal Methods: Major Problems With Their Use
CED-81-21: Published: Nov 19, 1980. Publicly Released: Nov 19, 1980.
GAO was asked to study alternative methods of disposal and cleanup of hazardous wastes. Specifically, the study looked into the: (1) environmental and cost effectiveness of hazardous waste disposal on the land, deep well injection, and high temperature incineration and the need for additional research and development in these areas; (2) establishment of facilities on a regional or areawide basis a...
Alternatives for the Disposal and Cleanup of Hazardous Waste
112696: Jul 2, 1980
Disposal of hazardous waste by land, injection into deep wells, and high temperature burning are discussed. Land disposal is the most commonly used method of disposing of hazardous substances because it is the least expensive method. It is limited by the amount of land available for disposal purposes and safety considerations such as proximity to drinking water sources. Deep well disposal is the s...
Industrial Wastes: An Unexplored Source of Valuable Minerals
EMD-80-45: Published: May 15, 1980. Publicly Released: May 15, 1980.
Industrial wastes often contain valuable metals, and are often disposed of in ways that preclude the future recovery of mineral values. While Congress passed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 to improve the recovery of usable materials from waste, the executive branch has done little to enhance mineral recovery, especially from industrial wastes. GAO reviewed this situation to det...
Existing Nuclear Sites Can Be Used for New Powerplants and Nuclear Waste Storage
EMD-80-67: Published: Apr 1, 1980. Publicly Released: Apr 10, 1980.
GAO was requested to evaluate whether existing nuclear powerplant sites can be used (1) as locations for new powerplants, and (2) to dispose of wastes from nuclear powerplant operations.Most of the Nation's nuclear powerplant sites can support one or more additional powerplants. Advantages of this include (1) limiting the number of locations committed to long-term restricted use and periodic surve...
Codisposal of Garbage and Sewage Sludge
109911: Jul 18, 1979
The volume of garbage and sewage sludge being generated is increasing sharply while landfills, open dumps, incinerators, and ocean dumping are becoming exhausted. Codisposal is an alternative that is both economically and technologically feasible. The two basic approaches to codisposal use garbage as fuel for sludge drying or burning, with the objective of using the heat from burning garbage to dr...
Conversion of Urban Waste to Energy
109910: Jul 17, 1979
The use of urban waste-to-energy systems in the United States is not widespread due largely to institutional or economic barriers. In Western Europe conversion of waste to energy is a well established technique and over 180 plants are operational. The United States has about 20 plants operational, 10 under construction, 30 in the planning phase, and 71 in preliminary study stages. If these 131 pro...
The Nation's Nuclear Waste--Proposals for Organization and Siting
EMD-79-77: Published: Jun 21, 1979. Publicly Released: Jun 28, 1979.
Over the last 30 years, the Federal Government has generated vast quantities of highly radioactive contaminated waste. Spent fuel from commercial reactors has also accumulated. Both are characterized by high levels of radiation and a long toxic life. The Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Department of Energy (DOE) have major responsibilities for managing a...
Environmental Protection Agency and State Hazardous Waste Management Programs
109597: Jun 4, 1979
The problem of what to do with hazardous waste is growing. Hazardous waste must be treated and disposed of somewhere. Without an adequate national environmentally sound disposal and treatment capacity, the intent of current legislation to safeguard public health and the environment cannot be achieved. A more effective Federal and State role is necessary to assure that facilities will be available...
Codisposal of Garbage and Sewage Sludge--A Promising Solution to Two Problems
CED-79-59: Published: May 16, 1979. Publicly Released: May 16, 1979.
The process of using thermal techniques in the codisposal of sewage sludge and municipal garbage was examined in order to determine why the implementation of codisposal has been limited. Codisposal is the integrated processing of garbage and sewage sludge through burning in which garbage is used as a fuel in sludge drying. The volume of both wastes requiring ultimate disposal is greatly reduced. T...
Hazardous Waste Management Programs Will Not Be Effective: Greater Efforts Are Needed
CED-79-14: Published: Jan 23, 1979. Publicly Released: Jan 23, 1979.
The United States has numerous hazardous waste sources scattered throughout the Nation, producing 56 million tons annually. These include industrial wastes, agricultural chemical residues, and chemical or pathological wastes from hospitals and laboratories. They occur as solids, liquids, powders, and sludges, and represent a prodigious disposal problem. GAO reviewed the Environmental Protection Ag...
How To Dispose of Hazardous Waste--A Serious Question That Needs To Be Resolved
CED-79-13: Published: Dec 19, 1978. Publicly Released: Dec 19, 1978.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 was enacted to regulate management of hazardous wastes which pose a threat to human health and the environment. The development of environmentally sound treatment and disposal facilities is essential to this purpose. Adequate capacity is not available to handle the increasing volumes of waste being generated, and public opposition is seriously hin...
Sewage Sludge: How Do We Cope With It?
CED-78-152: Published: Sep 25, 1978. Publicly Released: Sep 25, 1978.
About 5 million tons of sludge are produced each year and the amount is increasing at a rapid rate. Sludge disposal options are limited. Federal and state environmental regulations have restricted such options as landfill and incineration and ocean dumping is being phased out because of dangers to human and marine life.The nutrient content of sludge could make it valuable as a fertilizer and it al...
Waste Disposal Practices: A Threat to Health and the Nation's Water Supply
CED-78-120: Published: Jun 16, 1978. Publicly Released: Jun 16, 1978.
Millions of tons of waste are generated annually and disposed of on land because this is usually the cheapest method of waste disposal. Land disposal sites are often located in areas considered to have little value for other uses.There has not been enough concern for soil or proximity to water resources in selecting land disposal sites. Leachate, a polluted liquid resulting when water comes in con...
Congressional Clarification Needed on Eligibility for Waivers of Non-Federal Contributions for Dredged Material Confined Disposal Areas
CED-77-135: Published: Oct 21, 1977. Publicly Released: Oct 21, 1977.
The Corps of Engineers dredges the Nation's channels and harbors in maintaining navigable waterways. Under legislation authorizing the construction of facilities for dredged material, the Federal Government pays 75 percent of construction costs for disposal of dredged materials and local interests pay 25 percent unless they receive a waiver based on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) fi...
Improving Military Solid Waste Management: Economic and Environmental Benefits
LCD-76-345: Published: Jun 2, 1977. Publicly Released: Jun 2, 1977.
The Department of Defense (DOD) can save money and protect the environment by improving its solid waste management.DOD and other Federal agencies are responsible for the annual disposal of 32 million tons of solid waste. Low priority has been given solid waste management, and the absence of DOD deadlines for complying with the Environmental Protection Agency's guidelines contribute to the problem...
Delays in Constructing Waste Treatment Facilities after Award of Construction Grants, Improvements Made
CED-77-1: Published: Nov 10, 1976. Publicly Released: Nov 10, 1976.
Certain aspects of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) grants program for constructing municipal waste treatment facilities were reviewed to determine the reasons for and extent of lengthy delays in beginning construction and to ascertain the federal share of waste treatment facility costs.The following factors were found to contribute to delays in constructing such facilities: (1) the EPA...
Review of Two Wastewater Treatment Plant Projects
100230: Oct 29, 1976
A review of 28 wastewater treatment projects funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) raised questions concerning those at Lebanon, New Hampshire and the Blackstone Valley Sewer District, East Providence, Rhode Island.At Lebanon, a decision was made to dispose of treatment plant sludge by incineration rather than by available sanitary landfill. Conflicting reports were given of the basi...
Opportunities for More Effective Use of Animal Manure
RED-76-101: Published: Jun 14, 1976. Publicly Released: Jun 14, 1976.
No summary is currently available...
Solid Waste Disposal Activities
B-118638: Published: Sep 26, 1974. Publicly Released: Jan 8, 1975.
No summary is currently available...