Hazardous substances (501 - 535 of 535 items)
Information on Disposal Practices of Generators of Small Quantities of Hazardous Wastes
RCED-83-200: Published: Sep 28, 1983. Publicly Released: Oct 28, 1983.
In response to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the problems caused by the disposal of hazardous waste into solid waste landfills by small-quantity generators of such waste.GAO found that: (1) although federal grants for small-quantity waste generator programs were eliminated in fiscal year 1982, officials in three of the four states visited by GAO indicated that they were able to increase st...
Interim Report on Inspection, Enforcement, and Permitting Activities at Hazardous Waste Facilities
RCED-83-241: Published: Sep 21, 1983. Publicly Released: Oct 5, 1983.
GAO reviewed the federal regulatory program for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, focusing on ground water monitoring, inspection and enforcement activities, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) permitting program for hazardous waste facilities. GAO performed this work in four states, all of which had primary inspection responsibility under interim authorization...
Delays in EPA's Regulation of Hazardous Air Pollutants
RCED-83-199: Published: Aug 26, 1983. Publicly Released: Sep 20, 1983.
In response to a congressional request, GAO provided information on: (1) how the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed a list of 37 substances which are subject to review as hazardous air pollutants; (2) the procedures and practices followed by EPA in preparing health assessment documents; (3) Science Advisory Board (SAB) involvement in the hazardous air pollutant program; and (4) EPA pr...
Siting of Hazardous Waste Landfills and Their Correlation With Racial and Economic Status of Surrounding Communities
RCED-83-168: Published: Jun 1, 1983. Publicly Released: Jun 14, 1983.
In response to a congressional request, GAO determined the correlation between the location of hazardous waste landfills and the racial and economic status of the surrounding communities in eight southeastern states. GAO also provided information on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site location standards and permitting procedures.GAO found that blacks make up the majority of the population i...
Potential Impacts of Reducing EPA's Budget
RCED-83-75: Published: Dec 30, 1982. Publicly Released: Feb 18, 1983.
In response to a congressional request, GAO examined the possible impact of fiscal year (FY) 1982 and proposed FY 1983 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) budgets on the air and hazardous waste programs in 15 states and 3 localities, the implications of the eventual phaseout of state grant assistance, the evolving federal/state partnership, and the effects of budget reductions on EPA personnel a...
EPA's Progress in Implementing the Superfund Program
118880: Jul 9, 1982
The Superfund legislation provides for a $1.6 billion fund to be accumulated from taxes on petroleum and certain chemicals and federal appropriations over the fiscal year 1981-85 period. The fund is to be used by the federal and state governments to clean up spilled toxic wastes and hazardous waste sites where the responsible party does not take appropriate action. Subsequently, efforts may be mad...
Environmental Protection Agency's Progress in Implementing the Superfund Program
CED-82-91: Published: Jun 2, 1982. Publicly Released: Jun 2, 1982.
GAO was requested to review the Superfund program to identify issues or problems concerning: (1) the selection of candidate sites for Superfund attention; (2) the extent and cost effectiveness of removal, remedy, and other measures at candidate sites; and (3) the ability of state governments to carry out their Superfund responsibilities.The Superfund legislation provides for a $1.6 billion fund to...
Environmental Protection: Agenda for the 1980's
CED-82-73: Published: May 5, 1982. Publicly Released: May 5, 1982.
GAO prepared a staff study as part of its continuing reassessment of areas of national concern and interest and identified environmental protection problems and issues most in need of attention. The review will influence the scope and direction of GAO audit efforts involving pollution control programs and activities.Environmental pollution affects the daily lives of all Americans in some form or m...
EPA's Progress in Implementing the Superfund Program
118136: Apr 20, 1982
Comments were presented on the results of a prior review of the Superfund Program which is designed to finance and clean up uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The fund is to be used by the federal government, primarily by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or a state government to clean up spilled toxic wastes and hazardous waste sites where the responsible party does not take appropriate...
Information on a Hazardous Waste Facility Containing Chromium Lead Sludge
CED-82-13: Published: Nov 9, 1981. Publicly Released: Nov 24, 1981.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO investigated a hazardous waste facility at which chromium lead sludge was being deposited in a wetland area as part of a hazardous waste disposal operation.The facility, which has been landfilling chromium lead sludge for 11 years, is located in a marshy area with an underground clay layer. This layer provides for the lateral flow of water or leachate from...
Stronger Enforcement Needed Against Misuse of Pesticides
CED-82-5: Published: Oct 15, 1981. Publicly Released: Oct 15, 1981.
GAO reviewed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state pesticide programs to enforce pesticide laws and suggested ways to improve program activities. GAO also reviewed special pesticide registrations to determine if some of the problems identified in an earlier GAO report had been corrected.Although improvements have been made in recent years, GAO found that the public may not always be prot...
Hazardous Waste Facilities With Interim Status May Be Endangering Public Health and the Environment
CED-81-158: Published: Sep 28, 1981. Publicly Released: Oct 7, 1981.
When the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act was enacted, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was directed to develop regulations governing hazardous waste facilities. After much delay, EPA finally issued interim status requirements outlining minimum national requirements. GAO was requested to determine: (1) the extent to which facilities with interim status meet the EPA requirements; (2)...
Millions of Dollars Could Be Saved by Implementing GAO Recommendations on Environmental Protection Agency Programs
CED-81-92: Published: May 5, 1981. Publicly Released: May 5, 1981.
GAO reviewed the opportunities to realize substantial savings through legislative and administrative changes in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) water pollution control and hazardous and solid waste programs.Millions of dollars in savings and improved program operations would result from implementing the GAO recommendations on the water pollution control and hazardous and solid waste pr...
Hazardous Waste Sites Pose Investigation, Evaluation, Scientific, and Legal Problems
CED-81-57: Published: Apr 24, 1981. Publicly Released: Apr 29, 1981.
Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a mandate to: (1) discover, investigate, evaluate, and respond to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites; (2) perform hazardous waste research; and (3) seek solutions to hazardous waste problems and, if necessary, file suit in federal courts.EPA has had difficulty in fulfilling its mandate because: (1) site...
Hazardous Waste Disposal: A Staggering Problem
116152: Jan 1, 1981
This article appeared in the GAO Review, Vol. 16, Issue 3, Summer 1981. A serious and potentially deadly problem is the growing volume of solid hazardous waste society produces. Less than 10 percent of the hazardous waste volume is disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. No part of the country is immune from the problem. Land disposal has been the predominant disposal method, but it present...
Hazardous Waste Disposal Methods: Major Problems With Their Use
CED-81-21: Published: Nov 19, 1980. Publicly Released: Nov 19, 1980.
GAO was asked to study alternative methods of disposal and cleanup of hazardous wastes. Specifically, the study looked into the: (1) environmental and cost effectiveness of hazardous waste disposal on the land, deep well injection, and high temperature incineration and the need for additional research and development in these areas; (2) establishment of facilities on a regional or areawide basis a...
Programs for Ensuring the Safe Transportation of Hazardous Materials Need Improvement
CED-81-5: Published: Nov 4, 1980. Publicly Released: Nov 13, 1980.
GAO evaluated the Department of Transportation's (DOT) efforts to promote the safe transportation of hazardous materials and the emergency response mechanisms available to react to hazardous material disaster situations. DOT is responsible for ensuring the safety of the public from the inherent risks associated with transporting hazardous materials.DOT has done much to upgrade the federal effort t...
Need for Comprehensive Pesticide Use Data
CED-80-145: Published: Sep 30, 1980. Publicly Released: Sep 30, 1980.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to have accurate and comprehensive information on pesticide usage to assess a pesticide's potential risks and benefits to humans and the environment and to improve the overall management of its pesticide programs. GAO examined sources of pesticide usage information were examined at EPA, other Federal and State agencies, and private organizations.EPA...
Need for a Formal Risk/Benefit Review of the Pesticide Chlordane
CED-80-116: Published: Aug 5, 1980. Publicly Released: Aug 5, 1980.
A review of the adequacy of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) regulation of pesticides used in and around the home revealed that chlordane, used for termite control, may pose unreasonable risks to man and the environment. In 1974, after studies showed that chlordane caused cancer in mice, EPA issued a notice of intent to cancel all registered uses of chlordane, except for subsurface grou...
Alternatives for the Disposal and Cleanup of Hazardous Waste
112696: Jul 2, 1980
Disposal of hazardous waste by land, injection into deep wells, and high temperature burning are discussed. Land disposal is the most commonly used method of disposing of hazardous substances because it is the least expensive method. It is limited by the amount of land available for disposal purposes and safety considerations such as proximity to drinking water sources. Deep well disposal is the s...
Delays and Unresolved Issues Plague New Pesticide Protection Programs
CED-80-32: Published: Feb 15, 1980. Publicly Released: Mar 21, 1980.
GAO reviewed three of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) new major programs to protect the public from hazardous pesticides. These programs were: (1) registration standards, (2) rebuttable presumption against registration (RPAR), and (3) laboratory inspection.Registration standards, the most recent and ambitious program, is designed to reassess the safety of the 35,000 pesticide products...
Environmental Protection Agency and State Hazardous Waste Management Programs
109597: Jun 4, 1979
The problem of what to do with hazardous waste is growing. Hazardous waste must be treated and disposed of somewhere. Without an adequate national environmentally sound disposal and treatment capacity, the intent of current legislation to safeguard public health and the environment cannot be achieved. A more effective Federal and State role is necessary to assure that facilities will be available...
Waste Disposal Practices for Infectious Wastes at Hospitals, Laboratories and Veterinary Establishments
CED-79-73: Published: Apr 5, 1979. Publicly Released: Apr 5, 1979.
As part of a continuing assessment of hazardous waste issues, disposal practices for infectious wastes was reviewed at hospitals, laboratories, and veterinary establishments.Based on the information obtained during the review, the proposed definition of infectious waste could result in government over-regulation. As proposed, much waste will be treated as hazardous even though it does not pose a s...
Environmental Protection Issues Facing the Nation
CED-79-63: Published: Mar 15, 1979. Publicly Released: Mar 15, 1979.
Pollution has been a national environmental concern for many years, with federal policy gradually evolving and culminating in comprehensive congressional legislation in the 1970's. The strategy to control air, water, and noise pollution has centered on national uniform technology-based standards, a policy which is meeting resistance from industry, the states, and municipalities because it is not c...
Hazardous Waste Management Programs Will Not Be Effective: Greater Efforts Are Needed
CED-79-14: Published: Jan 23, 1979. Publicly Released: Jan 23, 1979.
The United States has numerous hazardous waste sources scattered throughout the Nation, producing 56 million tons annually. These include industrial wastes, agricultural chemical residues, and chemical or pathological wastes from hospitals and laboratories. They occur as solids, liquids, powders, and sludges, and represent a prodigious disposal problem. GAO reviewed the Environmental Protection Ag...
How To Dispose of Hazardous Waste--A Serious Question That Needs To Be Resolved
CED-79-13: Published: Dec 19, 1978. Publicly Released: Dec 19, 1978.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 was enacted to regulate management of hazardous wastes which pose a threat to human health and the environment. The development of environmentally sound treatment and disposal facilities is essential to this purpose. Adequate capacity is not available to handle the increasing volumes of waste being generated, and public opposition is seriously hin...
Three Senate Bills Introduced To Reform the Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Waste Management (S. 3146, S. 2761, and S. 2804)
106236: Jun 14, 1978
S. 3146, S. 2804, and S. 2761 seek to reform the regulatory framework for nuclear waste management. S. 3146 would direct the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to regulate the storage and disposal of radioactive waste with certain national security exemptions and would establish standards for disposal and storage of uranium mill tailings and low level radioactive waste which may be regulated by t...
Improvements Needed in Coast Guard's Computer-Based Pollution Incident Reporting System
104770: Jan 31, 1978
The Pollution Incident Reporting System (PIRS) is a computer-based system which was started in December 1971 to collect information on discharges of oil or hazardous substances reported to or detected by the Coast Guard and was later expanded to collect information on cleanup activities and penalty actions.In a May 1977 memorandum, the Acting Chief of the Office of Marine Environment and Systems s...
National Water Quality Goals Cannot Be Attained without More Attention to Pollution from Diffused or 'Nonpoint' Sources
CED-78-6: Published: Dec 20, 1977. Publicly Released: Dec 20, 1977.
Nonpoint sources of pollution involve pollutants such as sediment, acid mine drainage, and pesticides carried into streams by storm runoff. Discharges of nonpoint pollution can occur anywhere along a water body in contrast to sources where the point of discharge is from a conduit; as a result, nonpoint sources are more difficult to control.The best way to control nonpoint pollution is to prevent a...
Proposed Radioactive Waste Management Act of 1977
EMD-78-21: Published: Dec 5, 1977. Publicly Released: Dec 5, 1977.
No summary is currently available...
Exposure of Naval Regional Medical Center Personnel to Toxic Substances
HRD-77-117: Published: Jul 5, 1977. Publicly Released: Jul 5, 1977.
The deaths from leukemia of two employees who worked in the powerhouse of the Naval Regional Medical Center in Portsmouth, Virginia, could have been work-induced.The powerhouse uses "number 6" fuel oil containing benzene and other contaminants. While a cause and effect relationship was not posited, benzene has been known to cause leukemia. Number 6 fuel is used by several Federal agencies, and pro...
Federal Pesticide Registration Program: Is It Protecting the Public and the Environment Adequately From Pesticide Hazards?
RED-76-42: Published: Dec 4, 1975. Publicly Released: Dec 4, 1975.
No summary is currently available...
Federal and State Efforts To Control Water Pollution Caused by Acid Drainage From Mines
B-177011: Published: Aug 14, 1973. Publicly Released: Aug 14, 1973.
No summary is currently available...
Review of Federal and State Programs for Assuring the Purity and Safety of Drinking Water
094548: May 31, 1973
No summary is currently available...