Environmental law (51 - 100 of 332 items)
Environmental Information: EPA Actions Could Reduce the Availability of Environmental Information to the Public
GAO-07-464T: Published: Feb 6, 2007. Publicly Released: Feb 6, 2007.
U.S. industry uses billions of pounds of chemicals to produce the nation's goods and services. Releases of these chemicals during use or disposal can harm human health and the environment. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 requires facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than specified amounts of nearly 650 toxic chemicals to report their releases t...
Military Base Closures: Opportunities Exist to Improve Environmental Cleanup Cost Reporting and to Expedite Transfer of Unneeded Property
GAO-07-166: Published: Jan 30, 2007. Publicly Released: Jan 30, 2007.
The cleanup of environmental contamination on unneeded property resulting from prior defense base realignment and closure (BRAC) rounds has been a key impediment to the transfer of these properties and could be an issue in the transfer and reuse of unneeded property resulting from the 2005 BRAC round. GAO's analysis of available data indicates that, when completed, the cleanup for the four prior B...
Forest Service: Use of Categorical Exclusions for Vegetation Management Projects, Calendar Years 2003 through 2005
GAO-07-99: Published: Oct 10, 2006. Publicly Released: Nov 9, 2006.
The Forest Service manages over 192 million acres of land, in part through vegetation management projects such as thinning trees. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires the Forest Service to prepare either an environmental assessment (EA) or an environmental impact statement (EIS) before approving a project that may significantly affect the environment. The agency generally does not...
Biscuit Fire Recovery Project: Analysis of Project Development, Salvage Sales, and Other Activities
GAO-06-967: Published: Sep 18, 2006. Publicly Released: Oct 4, 2006.
In 2002, the Biscuit Fire burned almost 500,000 acres of the Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest in southwestern Oregon. In its wake, the Biscuit Fire Recovery Project (Project) is one of the largest, most complex postfire recovery projects undertaken by the Forest Service. Considerable controversy exists over the Project and its salvage sales to harvest dead trees. GAO was asked to determine (1)...
Chemical Regulation: Actions are Needed to Improve the Effectiveness of EPA's Chemical Review Program
GAO-06-1032T: Published: Aug 2, 2006. Publicly Released: Aug 2, 2006.
Chemicals play an important role in everyday life, but some may be harmful to human health and the environment. Chemicals are used to produce items widely used throughout society, such as cleansers and plastics as well as industrial solvents and additives. However, some chemicals, such as lead and mercury, are highly toxic at certain doses and need to be regulated because of health and safety conc...
Particulate Matter: EPA Has Started to Address the National Academies' Recommendations on Estimating Health Benefits, but More Progress Is Needed
GAO-06-780: Published: Jul 17, 2006. Publicly Released: Jul 19, 2006.
A large body of scientific evidence links exposure to particulate matter--a widespread form of air pollution--to serious health problems, including asthma and premature death. Under the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) periodically reviews the appropriate air quality level at which to set national standards to protect the public against the health effects of particulate mat...
Particulate Matter: EPA Needs to Make More Progress in Addressing the National Academies' Recommendations on Estimating Health Benefits
GAO-06-992T: Published: Jul 19, 2006. Publicly Released: Jul 19, 2006.
Scientific evidence links exposure to particulate matter--a widespread form of air pollution--to serious health problems, including asthma and premature death. Under the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) periodically reviews the appropriate air quality level at which to set national standards to protect the public against the health effects of six pollutants, including parti...
Environmental Compliance and Enforcement: EPA's Effort to Improve and Make More Consistent Its Compliance and Enforcement Activities
GAO-06-840T: Published: Jun 28, 2006. Publicly Released: Jun 28, 2006.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) enforces the nation's environmental laws and regulations through its Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA). While OECA provides overall direction on enforcement policies and occasionally takes direct enforcement action, many enforcement responsibilities are carried out by EPA's 10 regional offices. In addition, these offices oversee the enf...
Superfund: Better Financial Assurances and More Effective Implementation of Institutional Controls Are Needed to Protect the Public
GAO-06-900T: Published: Jun 15, 2006. Publicly Released: Jun 15, 2006.
Under the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund program, parties responsible for pollution bear the cost of cleaning it up. However, these parties sometimes no longer exist, leaving the problem for others, typically the federal government, to address. Furthermore, many sites' cleanup remedies leave some waste in place, relying on institutional controls--legal or administrative restrict...
Environmental Liabilities: Hardrock Mining Cleanup Obligations
GAO-06-884T: Published: Jun 14, 2006. Publicly Released: Jun 14, 2006.
Key federal environmental statutes, such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which established the Superfund program, require that parties statutorily responsible for pollution bear the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites. In many cases, liable parties meet their cleanup responsibilities. Ho...
Chemical Regulation: Approaches in the United States, Canada, and the European Union
GAO-06-217R: Published: Nov 4, 2005. Publicly Released: Nov 30, 2005.
Chemicals are used to produce items widely used throughout society, including consumer products such as cleansers, paints, plastics, and fuels, as well as industrial solvents and additives. While chemicals play an important role in everyday life, some may be harmful to human health and the environment. Some chemicals, such as lead and mercury, are highly toxic at certain doses and need to be regul...
Federal Water Requirements: Challenges to Estimating the Cost Impact on Local Communities
GAO-06-151R: Published: Nov 30, 2005. Publicly Released: Nov 30, 2005.
Under the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly referred to as the Clean Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has responsibility for protecting public health and welfare, as well as the integrity of our nation's waters. Federal water requirements under these acts affect facilities providing the most basic services at the local level, includin...
Indian Tribes: EPA Should Reduce the Review Time for Tribal Requests to Manage Environmental Programs
GAO-06-95: Published: Oct 31, 2005. Publicly Released: Oct 31, 2005.
The Clean Water, Safe Drinking Water, and Clean Air Acts authorize the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to treat eligible Indian tribes in the same manner as a state (referred to as TAS) for implementing and managing environmental programs on Indian lands. Some states are concerned that tribes receiving authority to manage these programs may set standards that exceed the state standards and h...
Invasive Species: Progress and Challenges in Preventing Introduction into U.S. Waters Via the Ballast Water in Ships
GAO-05-1026T: Published: Sep 9, 2005. Publicly Released: Sep 9, 2005.
Numerous invasive species have been introduced into U.S. waters via ballast water discharged from ships and have caused serious economic and ecologic damage. GAO reported in 2002 that at least 160 nonnative aquatic species had become established in the Great Lakes since the 1800s--one-third of which were introduced in the past 30 years by ballast water and other sources. The effects of such specie...
Environmental Liabilities: EPA Should Do More to Ensure That Liable Parties Meet Their Cleanup Obligations
GAO-05-658: Published: Aug 17, 2005. Publicly Released: Aug 17, 2005.
The burden of cleaning up Superfund and other hazardous waste sites is increasingly shifting to taxpayers, particularly since businesses handling hazardous substances are no longer taxed under Superfund and the backlog of sites needing cleanup is growing. While key environmental laws rely on the "polluter pays" principle, the extent to which liable parties cease operations or restructure--such as...
Environmental Justice: EPA Should Devote More Attention to Environmental Justice When Developing Clean Air Rules
GAO-05-289: Published: Jul 25, 2005. Publicly Released: Aug 4, 2005.
Executive Order 12898 made achieving "environmental justice" part of the mission of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal agencies. According to EPA, environmental justice involves fair treatment of people of all races, cultures, and incomes. EPA developed guidance for considering environmental justice during the development of rules under the Clean Air Act and other activiti...
Clean Water Act: Improved Resource Planning Would Help EPA Better Respond to Changing Needs and Fiscal Constraints
GAO-05-721: Published: Jul 22, 2005. Publicly Released: Aug 2, 2005.
Federal and state fiscal constraints may jeopardize past and future accomplishments resulting from the Clean Water Act (the act). In this environment, it is important to manage available resources as efficiently as possible and to identify future human capital needs, including the size of the workforce and its deployment across the organization. GAO was asked to determine (1) the extent to which t...
Chemical Regulation: Options Exist to Improve EPA's Ability to Assess Health Risks and Manage Its Chemical Review Program
GAO-05-458: Published: Jun 13, 2005. Publicly Released: Jul 13, 2005.
Chemicals play an important role in everyday life, but some may be harmful to human health and the environment. Chemicals are used to produce items widely used throughout society, including consumer products such as cleansers, paints, plastics, and fuels, as well as industrial solvents and additives. However, some chemicals, such as lead and mercury, are highly toxic at certain doses and need to b...
Clean Air Act: EPA Has Completed Most of the Actions Required by the 1990 Amendments, but Many Were Completed Late
GAO-05-613: Published: May 27, 2005. Publicly Released: Jun 27, 2005.
While air quality in the United States has steadily improved over the last few decades, more than a hundred million Americans continue to live in communities where pollution causes the air to be unhealthy at times, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Clean Air Act, first passed in 1963, was last reauthorized and amended in 1990, when new programs were created and changes we...
Clean Air Act: Emerging Mercury Control Technologies Have Shown Promising Results, but Data on Long-Term Performance Are Limited
GAO-05-612: Published: May 31, 2005. Publicly Released: Jun 23, 2005.
In March 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a rule that will limit emissions of mercury--a toxic element that causes neurological problems--from coal-fired power plants, the nation's largest industrial source of mercury emissions. Under the rule, mercury emissions are to be reduced from a baseline of 48 tons per year to 38 tons in 2010 and to 15 tons in 2018. In the rule, EPA s...
Endangered Species Act: Successes and Challenges in Agency Collaboration and the Use of Scientific Information in the Decision Making Process
GAO-05-732T: Published: May 19, 2005. Publicly Released: May 19, 2005.
The purpose of the Endangered Species Act is to conserve endangered and threatened species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. This law currently protects more than 1,260 animal and plant species. Within the Department of the Interior, the Fish and Wildlife Service implements and enforces the act. In addition, all federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and the Bureau of Land Ma...
Clean Air Act: Observations on EPA's Cost-Benefit Analysis of Its Mercury Control Options
GAO-05-252: Published: Feb 28, 2005. Publicly Released: Mar 7, 2005.
Mercury is a toxic element that can cause neurological disorders in children. In January 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed two options for limiting mercury from power plants, and plans to finalize a rule in March 2005. The first would require each plant to meet emissions standards reflecting the application of control technology (the technology-based option), while the secon...
Transportation Planning: State and Metropolitan Planning Agencies Report Using Varied Methods to Consider Ecosystem Conservation
GAO-04-536: Published: May 17, 2004. Publicly Released: Jun 10, 2004.
The nation's roads, highways, and bridges are essential to mobility but can have negative effects on plants, animals, and the habitats that support them (collectively called ecosystems in this report). Federally funded transportation projects progress through three planning phases: long range (20 or more years), short range (3 to 5 years), and early project development, (collectively defined as pl...
Clean Air Act: Key Stakeholders' Views on Revisions to the New Source Review Program
GAO-04-274: Published: Feb 2, 2004. Publicly Released: Feb 6, 2004.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revisions to the New Source Review (NSR) program to control industrial emissions have drawn attention from state and local agencies that implement the program, as well as industry and environmental and health groups. Under the revisions, companies may not have to install pollution controls when making some facility changes. GAO was asked to obtain the opinions...
Survey of State and Local Air Quality Officials Opinions on the Impacts of the Environmental Protection Agency's Revisions to the Clean Air Act's New Source Review Program, an E-supplement to GAO-04-274
GAO-04-337SP: Published: Feb 2, 2004. Publicly Released: Feb 2, 2004.
This document presents the results of GAO's survey of program managers within state and local air quality agencies that implement the Clean Air Act's New Source Review (NSR) Program. To determine these officials' views on the impacts of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) proposed and final revisions to the act's NSR program, we conducted an internet-based survey of NSR program managers...
National Wildlife Refuges: Opportunities to Improve the Management and Oversight of Oil and Gas Activities on Federal Lands
GAO-03-517: Published: Aug 28, 2003. Publicly Released: Sep 23, 2003.
The 95-million acre National Wildlife Refuge System contains federal lands devoted to the conservation and management of fish, wildlife, and plant resources. While the federal government owns the surface lands in the system, in many cases private parties own the subsurface mineral rights and have the legal authority to explore for and extract oil and gas. GAO was asked to determine the extent of o...
Deep Injection Wells: EPA Needs to Involve Communities Earlier and Ensure That Financial Assurance Requirements Are Adequate
GAO-03-761: Published: Jun 13, 2003. Publicly Released: Jul 14, 2003.
Billions of gallons of hazardous liquid waste are injected into underground wells each year. These Class I hazardous deep injection wells are designed to inject waste into an area below the lowermost underground source of drinking water. EPA and the states grant permits to commercial operators to construct and operate these wells and must obtain public comments on the permits. Communities often ra...
BLM Public Domain Lands: Volume of Timber Offered for Sale Has Declined Substantially Since Fiscal Year 1990
GAO-03-615: Published: Jun 19, 2003. Publicly Released: Jun 19, 2003.
For several decades, debate over how to balance timber sales with resource protection and recreational use on federally managed lands has been at the heart of controversy surrounding federal land management. The Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is one of the federal agencies that manages some of the nation's forests--about 53 million acres--under its public domain fores...
Environmental Compliance: Better DOD Guidance Needed to Ensure That the Most Important Activities Are Funded
GAO-03-639: Published: Jun 17, 2003. Publicly Released: Jun 17, 2003.
The Department of Defense (DOD) and its military services are responsible for complying with a broad range of environmental laws and other requirements that apply to the lands they manage, including more than 425 major military installations covering about 25 million acres across the United States. Through its environmental quality program, DOD spends about $2 billion per year to comply with these...
Invasive Species: Federal Efforts and State Perspectives on Challenges and National Leadership
GAO-03-916T: Published: Jun 17, 2003. Publicly Released: Jun 17, 2003.
Invasive species--nonnative plants and animals--have caused billions of dollars in damage to natural areas, businesses, and consumers. In 2001, the federal government issued a National Management Plan to coordinate a national control effort involving the 20 or so federal agencies that are responsible for managing invasive species. In October 2002, GAO reported on the implementation of the manageme...
Environmental Contamination: DOD Has Taken Steps to Improve Cleanup Coordination at Former Defense Sites but Clearer Guidance Is Needed to Ensure Consistency
GAO-03-146: Published: Mar 28, 2003. Publicly Released: Apr 28, 2003.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) is in charge of addressing cleanup at the more than 9,000 U.S. properties that were formerly owned or controlled by the Department of Defense (DOD) and have been identified as potentially eligible for environmental cleanup. The Corps has determined that more than 4,000 of these properties have no hazards that require further Corps study or cleanup action. H...
National Forests: Information on the Process and Data Used to revise the Chugach Forest Plan
GAO-02-855: Published: Jul 26, 2002. Publicly Released: Jul 26, 2002.
The Chugach National Forest in Alaska is the second largest of the 155 forests in the National Forest System and stretches across an immensely varied and scenic area. The Forest Service revised the Chugach National Forest Plan in accordance with planning regulations that require the Forest Service to solicit and respond to public concerns in (1) identifying issues to be considered in revising the...
EPA's Science Advisory Board Panels: Improved Policies and Procedures Needed to Ensure Independence and Balance
GAO-01-536: Published: Jun 12, 2001. Publicly Released: Jul 16, 2001.
This report reviews whether the policies and procedures of the Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board ensure that (1) its peer review panelists are independent and the panels are properly balanced and (2) the public is sufficiently informed about the points of view represented on the panels. GAO found that the policies and procedures used by the staff office to ensure the indepen...
Air Pollution: Air Quality and Respiratory Problems in and Near the Great Smoky Mountains
GAO-01-658: Published: May 25, 2001. Publicly Released: May 25, 2001.
Concerns have been growing about the air quality, visibility, and respiratory illnesses around the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which straddles the border between North Carolina and Tennessee. This report analyzes recent trends in and contributing factors to (1) visibility impairments, (2) ground-level ozone, and (3) respiratory illnesses. This report also examines the Tennessee Valley Aut...
Air Pollution: EPA Should Improve Oversight of Emissions Reporting by Large Facilities
GAO-01-46: Published: Apr 6, 2001. Publicly Released: May 7, 2001.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performs limited oversight of states' processes for verifying the accuracy of large industrial facilities' emissions reports. EPA's data show that most emissions determinations from large sources are based on generic emissions factors. Although EPA allows facilities to estimate their emissions in this manner, EPA officials generally consider direct methods...
Environmental Protection: EPA Should Strengthen Its Efforts to Measure and Encourage Pollution Prevention
GAO-01-283: Published: Feb 21, 2001. Publicly Released: Mar 26, 2001.
Limited quantitative data exists on the extent to which American industry has sought to use pollution prevention methods to reduce pollutants discharged from its facilities. This shortcoming has inhibited the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to monitor and encourage companies' use of pollution prevention measures. Whether to undertake pollution prevention is typically a business dec...
Land Management Agencies: Ongoing Initiative to Share Activities and Facilities Needs Management Attention
GAO-01-50: Published: Nov 21, 2000. Publicly Released: Nov 30, 2000.
The colocation of the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) units provides the best opportunity for the agencies to jointly serve the public, effect operational efficiencies, and improve land management. The Service First Initiative is designed to improve the operations of these two agencies by combining resources and providing "one-stop shopping" services for the public. Since th...
Hazardous Waste: Effect of Proposed Rule's Extra Cleanup Requirements Is Uncertain
GAO-01-57: Published: Oct 20, 2000. Publicly Released: Nov 20, 2000.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed several amendments to its 1993 Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) rule. The CAMU rule currently allows agencies to set aside part of their hazardous waste site to deposit wastes without triggering the requirements of the Recovery Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA's action is in response to a lawsuit alleging that the CAMU rule would...
Environmental Protection Agency: Use of Precautionary Assumptions in Health Risk Assessments and Benefits Estimates
GAO-01-55: Published: Oct 16, 2000. Publicly Released: Oct 16, 2000.
Some of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) regulations set standards that limit environmental contaminants to levels that are determined, in large part, on the basis of the health risks they pose. When EPA assesses the health risks of contaminants, however, the agency is faced with uncertainties and gaps in scientific knowledge and data. This report summarizes GAO's findings on whether EP...
Hazardous Waste: EPA Has Removed Some Barriers to Cleanups
RCED-00-224: Published: Aug 31, 2000. Publicly Released: Sep 14, 2000.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to remove barriers to hazardous waste cleanup, focusing on: (1) cleanups of remediation waste at sites subject to the three Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements; and (2) the management factors that had slowed the pace of cleanups under the corrective action pro...
Army Corps of Engineers: An Assessment of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement of the Lower Snake River Dams
RCED-00-186: Published: Jul 24, 2000. Publicly Released: Jul 24, 2000.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Army Corps of Engineers' environmental impact statement (EIS) of the Lower Snake River dams, focusing on: (1) extent to which the Corps followed applicable procedures and guidelines in preparing the draft EIS; and (2) reasonableness of the methodology the Corps used to analyze and present the effects of breaching the dams, specifically with res...
Environmental Protection: More Consistency Needed Among EPA Regions in Approach to Enforcement
RCED-00-108: Published: Jun 1, 2000. Publicly Released: Jul 5, 2000.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the consistency of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) regional offices' enforcement of environmental requirements, focusing on: (1) the extent to which variations exist among EPA's regional offices in the actions they take to enforce environmental requirements; (2) what factors contribute to any variations; and (3) what EPA...
Air Pollution: Emission Sources Regulated by Multiple Clean Air Act Provisions
RCED-00-155: Published: May 31, 2000. Publicly Released: Jul 3, 2000.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the regulatory programs that target specific pollutants or sources of pollution under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, focusing on: (1) examples of emission sources subject to regulation under more than one program authorized by the act; and (2) the status of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to facilitate compliance for such so...
Climate Change: Observations on EPA's March 2000 Climate Change Report
RCED-00-166R: Published: Jun 5, 2000. Publicly Released: Jun 5, 2000.
Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO provided information on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) March 2000 climate change report, focusing on: (1) the agency's climate change programs for fiscal year (FY) 2001; (2) the programs' goals, strategies, and procedures to verify and validate performance information; (3) EPA's justification for requested funding increases; and (4) how the p...
Environmental Protection: Grants for International Activities and Smart Growth
RCED-00-145R: Published: May 31, 2000. Publicly Released: May 31, 2000.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) grants for international activities and smart growth, focusing on the: (1) number, dollar amount, and recipients of international and smart growth grants; (2) purposes of and the activities pursuant to the grants; and (3) statutory bases that EPA cites for awarding these grants.GAO noted th...
Air Pollution: Implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
T-RCED-00-183: Published: May 17, 2000. Publicly Released: May 17, 2000.
GAO discussed the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments and on sources regulated by multiple provisions of the act, focusing on: (1) the status of EPA's implementation of requirements established by the 1990 amendments; (2) the views from the stakeholders--state governments, local programs, industries that are regulated under the act, and environmen...
Air Pollution: Status of Implementation and Issues of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
RCED-00-72: Published: Apr 17, 2000. Publicly Released: May 17, 2000.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, focusing on: (1) the status of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementation of the requirements established by the 1990 amendments; and (2) views from state governments, local programs, industries that are regulated under the act, and environmental advocacy groups (collectively referre...
[Applicability of Environmental Laws to National Nuclear Security Administration]
B-285281: Published: May 8, 2000. Publicly Released: May 8, 2000.
GAO reviewed the applicability of environmental laws to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), focusing on whether: (1) the National Nuclear Security Administration Act narrows the waivers of sovereign immunity contained in existing environmental, safety, and health laws that apply to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the NNSA; and (2) a bill now before the Committee on Commerce (H...
Acid Rain: Emissions Trends and Effects in the Eastern United States
RCED-00-47: Published: Mar 9, 2000. Publicly Released: Mar 27, 2000.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on acid rain emissions trends in the eastern United States, focusing on: (1) sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emitted into the air at the national level; (2) deposition in the eastern United States and in three environmentally sensitive areas; (3) sulfates and nitrates in lakes in the Adirondack Mountains and the prospects for the lak...
Marine Pollution: Progress Made to Reduce Marine Pollution by Cruise Ships, but Important Issues Remain
RCED-00-48: Published: Feb 28, 2000. Publicly Released: Mar 7, 2000.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the actions being taken by federal regulators and the cruise ship industry to prevent future illegal discharges of waste, focusing on: (1) the nature and extent of reported illegal discharge cases for foreign-flagged cruise ships from 1993 through 1998; (2) federal agencies' efforts to prevent, detect, investigate, and prosecute ille...