Export regulation (1 - 10 of 29 items) in Custom Date Range
Critical Technologies: Agency Initiatives Address Some Weaknesses, but Additional Interagency Collaboration Is Needed
GAO-15-288: Published: Feb 10, 2015. Publicly Released: Feb 10, 2015.
The agencies responsible for eight programs designed to protect critical technologies have implemented several initiatives since 2007, but face some implementation challenges. Agencies have made progress addressing previously identified weaknesses in response to changes in law, GAO recommendations, or agencies' own internal identification of them. For instance, the area of export controls has seen...
Protecting Defense Technologies: DOD Assessment Needed to Determine Requirement for Critical Technologies List
GAO-13-157: Published: Jan 23, 2013. Publicly Released: Jan 23, 2013.
While the Department of Defense (DOD) took steps to address previously identified weaknesses in updating and maintaining the Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL), the list remains outdated and updates have ceased. For example, DOD has solicited users' requirements and feedback on the MCTL, and added a search engine capability to improve navigation of the list and updated each technology se...
Defense Exports: Foreign Military Sales Program Needs Better Controls for Exported Items and Information for Oversight
GAO-09-454: Published: May 20, 2009. Publicly Released: Jun 19, 2009.
In fiscal year 2008, the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program sold over $36 billion dollars in defense articles and services to foreign governments. The Departments of State, Defense (DOD), and Homeland Security (DHS) all have a role in the FMS program. In 2003, GAO identified significant weaknesses in FMS control mechanisms for safeguarding defense articles transferred to foreign governments. In...
Military and Dual-Use Technology: Covert Testing Shows Continuing Vulnerabilities of Domestic Sales for Illegal Export
GAO-09-725T: Published: Jun 4, 2009. Publicly Released: Jun 4, 2009.
Terrorists and foreign governments regularly attempt to obtain sensitive dual-use and military technology from manufacturers and distributors within the United States. Although the Department of State (State) or Department of Commerce (Commerce), or both, must grant approval to export sensitive military and dual-use items, publicly reported criminal cases show that individuals can bypass this requ...
Defense Trade: Clarification and More Comprehensive Oversight of Export Exemptions Certified by DOD Are Needed
GAO-07-1103: Published: Sep 19, 2007. Publicly Released: Oct 19, 2007.
Defense (DOD) activities, U.S. defense companies may export defense items. The Department of State (State) controls such exports through its International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), which provides for some exemptions from export licensing requirements. For a limited number of these exemptions, DOD may confirm--or certify--that the export activity qualifies for the use of an ITAR exemption...
Defense Technologies: DOD's Critical Technologies Lists Rarely Inform Export Control and Other Policy Decisions
GAO-06-793: Published: Jul 28, 2006. Publicly Released: Jul 28, 2006.
Major acquisitions in the Department of Defense's (DOD) force transformation rely on maintaining technological superiority to ensure U.S. military dominance. Failure to identify and protect critical technologies makes U.S. military assets vulnerable to cloning, neutralization, or other action that degrades current and anticipated capabilities. To help minimize these risks, DOD's Militarily Critica...
President's Justification of the High Performance Computer Control Threshold Does Not Fully Address National Defense Authorization Act of 1998 Requirements
GAO-06-754R: Published: Jun 30, 2006. Publicly Released: Jun 30, 2006.
The United States controls the export of high performance computers for national security and foreign policy reasons. High performance computers have both civilian and military applications and operate at or above a defined performance threshold (which was formerly measured in millions of theoretical operations per second [MTOPS], but is now measured in Weighted TeraFlops [WT]). The U.S. export co...
Defense Trade: Arms Export Control System in the Post-9/11 Environment
GAO-05-234: Published: Feb 16, 2005. Publicly Released: Apr 7, 2005.
The U.S. government controls arms exports by U.S. companies to ensure that such exports are consistent with national security and foreign policy interests. There have been various efforts to change the arms export control system, which is overseen by the State Department. One effort was the Defense Trade Security Initiative of 2000, which was intended to facilitate defense trade with allies in the...
Defense Trade: Arms Export Control Vulnerabilities and Inefficiencies in the Post-9/11 Security Environment
GAO-05-468R: Published: Apr 7, 2005. Publicly Released: Apr 7, 2005.
In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, attacks and the subsequent global war on terror, the nature of threats facing this country has changed, and as a result, policies and structures from previous decades need to be rethought. One area for reexamination in this changed security environment is the arms export control system. The State Department oversees this system to ensure that arms export...
Defense Trade: Issues Concerning the Use of Offsets in International Defense Sales
GAO-04-954T: Published: Jul 8, 2004. Publicly Released: Jul 8, 2004.
Views on defense offsets range from beliefs that they are both positive and an unavoidable part of doing business overseas to beliefs that they negatively affect the U.S. industrial base. Defense offsets are often viewed as the key to foreign sales and thus increased business on the prime contractor level. They can also result in reduced unit costs to the U.S. military because of the increased siz...