International trade regulation (21 - 30 of 97 items)
Export Controls: Challenges with Commerce's Validated End-User Program May Limit Its Ability to Ensure That Semiconductor Equipment Exported to China Is Used as Intended
GAO-08-1095: Published: Sep 25, 2008. Publicly Released: Oct 27, 2008.
Semiconductors are key components in weapons systems and consumer electronics. Since semiconductors have both civilian and military applications, U.S. export control policy treats the equipment and materials used to manufacture semiconductors as "dual-use" items, and controls the export of these items through licensing requirements to sensitive destinations such as China. You requested that we upd...
Agencies Believe Strengthening International Agreements to Improve Collection of Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Would Be Difficult and Ineffective
GAO-08-876R: Published: Jul 24, 2008. Publicly Released: Jul 24, 2008.
The United States and many of its trading partners have enacted laws to remedy the unfair trade practices of other countries and foreign companies that cause injury to domestic industries. U.S. law authorizes the imposition of additional duties on importers to remedy these unfair trade practices. Specifically, antidumping (AD) duties are imposed on imports that are "dumped" in the United States (i...
International Trade: The United States Needs an Integrated Approach to Trade Preference Programs
GAO-08-907T: Published: Jun 12, 2008. Publicly Released: Jun 12, 2008.
U.S. trade preference programs promote economic development in poorer nations by providing duty-free export opportunities in the United States. The Generalized System of Preferences, Caribbean Basin Initiative, Andean Trade Preference Act, and African Growth and Opportunity Act unilaterally reduce U.S. tariffs for many products from over 130 countries. However, two of these programs expire partial...
U.S.-China Trade: USTR's China Compliance Reports and Plans Could Be Improved
GAO-08-405: Published: Apr 14, 2008. Publicly Released: May 14, 2008.
Congress mandated that the United States Trade Representative (USTR) annually assess China's trade compliance and report its findings to Congress. In addition, USTR conducted an interagency "top-to-bottom review" of U.S. trade policies toward China. USTR's resulting February 2006 report outlined U.S objectives and action items. GAO was asked to (1) evaluate USTR's annual China trade compliance rep...
Foreign Investment: Laws and Policies Regulating Foreign Investment in 10 Countries
GAO-08-320: Published: Feb 28, 2008. Publicly Released: Feb 28, 2008.
Foreign acquisitions of U.S. companies can pose a significant challenge for the U.S. government because of the need to balance the benefits of foreign investment with national security concerns. The Exon-Florio amendment to the Defense Production Act authorizes the President to suspend or prohibit foreign acquisitions of U.S. companies that may harm national security. To better understand how othe...
International Trade: An Analysis of Free Trade Agreements and Congressional and Private Sector Consultations under Trade Promotion Authority
GAO-08-59: Published: Nov 7, 2007. Publicly Released: Dec 7, 2007.
Congress granted the President Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) to negotiate agreements, including free trade agreements (FTA) in 2002. TPA stipulated negotiating objectives and procedural steps for the administration, including consulting with Congress and trade advisory committees. TPA lapsed in July 2007 amidst questions about its use. GAO was asked to review: (1) What FTAs have been pursued und...
Intellectual Property: U.S. Trade Policy Guidance on WTO Declaration on Access to Medicines May Need Clarification
GAO-07-1198: Published: Sep 28, 2007. Publicly Released: Oct 30, 2007.
The WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property (TRIPS) requires all 151 World Trade Organization (WTO) members to provide baseline protections, including 20-year patents for innovative pharmaceuticals. The Trade Act of 2002 granting Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) to the President outlined three negotiating objectives related to intellectual property (IP). The first two aim to strengthen...
Conflict Diamonds: Agency Actions Needed to Enhance Implementation of the Clean Diamond Trade Act
GAO-06-978: Published: Sep 27, 2006. Publicly Released: Sep 27, 2006.
In 2003, the United States and other countries began implementing the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) to curtail the trade of rough diamonds that had fueled severe conflicts in Africa, known as conflict diamonds. CDTA provides the statutory framework for U.S. implementation of the KPCS. As mandated in CDTA, this report (1) describes the institutional framework established to implemen...
GAO China Antidumping Database, an E-supplement to GAO-06-231
GAO-06-652SP: Published: Apr 21, 2006. Publicly Released: Apr 21, 2006.
This e-supplement is a companion to GAO's report U.S.-China Trade: Eliminating Nonmarket Economy Methodology Would Lower Antidumping Duties for Some Chinese Companies, GAO-06-231 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 10, 2006). The e-supplement contains a database of U.S. antidumping cases against China and selected other countries from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2004. It also describes the scope and...
U.S.-China Trade: Challenges and Choices to Apply Countervailing Duties to China
GAO-06-608T: Published: Apr 4, 2006. Publicly Released: Apr 4, 2006.
Some U.S. companies allege that unfair subsidies are a factor in China's success in U.S. markets. U.S. producers injured by subsidized imports may normally seek countervailing duties (CVD), but the United States does not apply CVDs against countries, including China, that the Department of Commerce classifies as "non-market economies" (NME). In this testimony, which is based on a June 2005 report...