International relations (21 - 30 of 96 items)
Export Controls: Challenges with Commerce's Validated End-User Program May Limit Its Ability to Ensure That Semiconductor Equipment Exported to China Is Used as Intended
GAO-08-1095: Published: Sep 25, 2008. Publicly Released: Oct 27, 2008.
Semiconductors are key components in weapons systems and consumer electronics. Since semiconductors have both civilian and military applications, U.S. export control policy treats the equipment and materials used to manufacture semiconductors as "dual-use" items, and controls the export of these items through licensing requirements to sensitive destinations such as China. You requested that we upd...
Agencies Believe Strengthening International Agreements to Improve Collection of Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Would Be Difficult and Ineffective
GAO-08-876R: Published: Jul 24, 2008. Publicly Released: Jul 24, 2008.
The United States and many of its trading partners have enacted laws to remedy the unfair trade practices of other countries and foreign companies that cause injury to domestic industries. U.S. law authorizes the imposition of additional duties on importers to remedy these unfair trade practices. Specifically, antidumping (AD) duties are imposed on imports that are "dumped" in the United States (i...
U.S.-China Trade: USTR's China Compliance Reports and Plans Could Be Improved
GAO-08-405: Published: Apr 14, 2008. Publicly Released: May 14, 2008.
Congress mandated that the United States Trade Representative (USTR) annually assess China's trade compliance and report its findings to Congress. In addition, USTR conducted an interagency "top-to-bottom review" of U.S. trade policies toward China. USTR's resulting February 2006 report outlined U.S objectives and action items. GAO was asked to (1) evaluate USTR's annual China trade compliance rep...
Antidumping and Countervailing Duties: Congress and Agencies Should Take Additional Steps to Reduce Substantial Shortfalls in Duty Collection
GAO-08-391: Published: Mar 26, 2008. Publicly Released: Apr 23, 2008.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) has been unable to collect hundreds of millions of dollars in antidumping (AD) and countervailing (CV) duties. The Department of Commerce imposes these duties to remedy injurious unfair foreign trade practices (unfairly low prices or subsidies). The noncollection of AD/CV duties means that the U.S. government has not fully remedied the unfair trade practice...
Foreign Investment: Laws and Policies Regulating Foreign Investment in 10 Countries
GAO-08-320: Published: Feb 28, 2008. Publicly Released: Feb 28, 2008.
Foreign acquisitions of U.S. companies can pose a significant challenge for the U.S. government because of the need to balance the benefits of foreign investment with national security concerns. The Exon-Florio amendment to the Defense Production Act authorizes the President to suspend or prohibit foreign acquisitions of U.S. companies that may harm national security. To better understand how othe...
Intellectual Property: U.S. Trade Policy Guidance on WTO Declaration on Access to Medicines May Need Clarification
GAO-07-1198: Published: Sep 28, 2007. Publicly Released: Oct 30, 2007.
The WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property (TRIPS) requires all 151 World Trade Organization (WTO) members to provide baseline protections, including 20-year patents for innovative pharmaceuticals. The Trade Act of 2002 granting Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) to the President outlined three negotiating objectives related to intellectual property (IP). The first two aim to strengthen...
World Trade Organization: Limited Progress at Hong Kong Ministerial Clouds Prospects for Doha Agreement
GAO-06-596: Published: Apr 26, 2006. Publicly Released: Apr 26, 2006.
U.S. officials often call the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Development Agenda or "Round" of global trade talks, launched in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001, a "once in a generation opportunity" to expand trade. President Bush has identified their success as his administration's top trade priority. Due to various U.S. notification and consultation requirements, concluding the negotiations in...
Intellectual Property: U.S. Efforts have Contributed to Strengthened Laws Overseas, but Significant Enforcement Challenges Remain
GAO-05-788T: Published: Jun 14, 2005. Publicly Released: Jun 14, 2005.
Although the U.S. government provides broad protection for intellectual property domestically, intellectual property protection in parts of the world is inadequate. As a result, U.S. goods are subject to piracy and counterfeiting in many countries. A number of U.S. agencies are engaged in efforts to improve protection of U.S. intellectual property abroad. This testimony, based on a prior GAO repor...
Foreign Assistance: U.S. Trade Capacity Building Extensive, but Its Effectiveness Has Yet to Be Evaluated
GAO-05-150: Published: Feb 11, 2005. Publicly Released: Feb 11, 2005.
Many developing countries have expressed concern about their inability to take advantage of global trading opportunities. The United States considers this ability a key factor in reducing poverty, achieving economic growth, raising income levels, and promoting stability. U.S. trade capacity building assistance is designed to address these concerns. GAO (1) identified the nature and extent of U.S....
U.S.-China Trade: Observations on Ensuring China's Compliance with World Trade Organization Commitments
GAO-05-295T: Published: Feb 4, 2005. Publicly Released: Feb 4, 2005.
U.S. government efforts to ensure China's compliance with its World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments require a sustained and multifaceted approach. To provide Congress with an update on these issues, GAO (1) discussed the key findings, conclusions, and recommendations from our recently issued work on China-WTO issues and (2) updated the Commission on a number of ongoing GAO reviews on China tr...