Lending institutions (1 - 10 of 108 items)
Mortgage-Related Assets: Capital Requirements Vary Depending on Type of Asset
GAO-17-93: Published: Dec 15, 2016. Publicly Released: Dec 15, 2016.
Rules for capital adequacy require banks to hold a percentage of their assets as capital to act as a financial cushion to absorb unexpected losses. Under current rules, banks must hold capital equal to at least 8 percent of risk-weighted assets. Since the early 1990s, U.S. federal banking regulators have used a risk-weighting system under which banks multiply asset amounts by factors, known as ris...
Mortgage Servicing: Community Lenders Remain Active under New Rules, but CFPB Needs More Complete Plans for Reviewing Rules
GAO-16-448: Published: Jun 23, 2016. Publicly Released: Jul 25, 2016.
Community banks and credit unions (community lenders) remained active in servicing mortgage loans under the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's (CFPB) new mortgage-servicing rules. Among other things, these rules are intended to provide more information to consumers about their loan obligations. The share of mortgages serviced by community lenders in 2015—about 13 percent—remained small com...
Credit Programs: Key Agencies Should Better Document Procedures for Estimating Subsidy Costs
GAO-16-269: Published: Jul 13, 2016. Publicly Released: Jul 13, 2016.
The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 requires agencies to estimate the cost to the government of extending or guaranteeing credit. This cost, referred to as subsidy cost, equals the net present value of estimated cash flows from the government (e.g., loan disbursements and claim payments to lenders) minus estimated cash flows to the government (e.g., loan repayments, interest payments, fees, and...
Rural Housing Service: Actions Needed to Strengthen Management of the Single Family Mortgage Guarantee Program
GAO-16-193: Published: Mar 31, 2016. Publicly Released: May 2, 2016.
The estimated credit subsidy costs (expected net lifetime costs) of single-family mortgages guaranteed by the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Rural Housing Service (RHS) substantially increased in recent years, partly due to high losses from the 2007 through 2011 housing crisis. For example, the fiscal year 2013 and 2014 reestimates (which federal agencies must do annually) indicated higher exp...
Troubled Asset Relief Program: Status of Housing Programs
GAO-16-279R: Published: Jan 8, 2016. Publicly Released: Jan 8, 2016.
As of October 31, 2015, three Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) housing programs— Making Home Affordable (MHA), Housing Finance Agency Innovation Fund for the Hardest Hit Housing Markets (Hardest Hit Fund or HHF), and Federal Housing Administration’s Short Refinance Program (FHA Short Refinance)—remained active. Combined, the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) had obligated $37.51 bill...
Lender-Placed Insurance: More Robust Data Could Improve Oversight
GAO-15-631: Published: Sep 8, 2015. Publicly Released: Sep 8, 2015.
Mortgage servicers purchase lender-placed insurance (LPI) for mortgages whose borrower-purchased insurance coverage lapses, most often because of nonpayment by the borrower or cancellation or nonrenewal by the original insurer. The limited information available indicates that LPI generally affects 1 percent to 2 percent of all mortgaged properties annually and has become less prevalent since the 2...
Troubled Asset Relief Program: Treasury Continues to Wind down Most Programs, but Housing Programs Remain Active
GAO-15-197: Published: Jan 6, 2015. Publicly Released: Jan 6, 2015.
The Department of the Treasury (Treasury) continues to wind down Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) nonhousing programs that were designed to support financial and automotive markets (see figure). As of September 30, 2014, Treasury had exited four of the nine nonhousing programs that were once active, and was managing assets totaling $2.9 billion under those remaining. Some programs have yielded...
Housing Finance System: A Framework for Assessing Potential Changes
GAO-15-131: Published: Oct 7, 2014. Publicly Released: Oct 7, 2014.
Developments in the single-family housing finance market from 2000-2013 led to changes in the federal government's role in the housing finance system and ultimately to a significant increase in that role. For example,Before the 2007-2009 financial crisis, the market share of nonprime mortgages—loans often made to borrowers with high-risk characteristics and funded by mortgage backed securities (...
Manufactured Housing: Efforts Needed to Enhance Program Effectiveness and Ensure Funding Stability
GAO-14-410: Published: Jul 2, 2014. Publicly Released: Aug 1, 2014.
HUD has established a process for updating the preemptive building standardsfor manufactured homes known as the HUD Code but has not fully met key purposes of the 2000 Manufactured Housing Improvement Act (2000 Act). Key purposes of the Act include:Establish a balanced, consensus-based process to update manufactured housing construction and safety standards. HUD has not accepted, rejected, or modi...
Foreclosure Review: Regulators Could Strengthen Oversight and Improve Transparency of the Process
GAO-14-376: Published: Apr 29, 2014. Publicly Released: Apr 29, 2014.
To negotiate the $3.9 billion cash payment amount in servicers' amended consent orders, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Federal Reserve) considered information from the incomplete foreclosure review, including factors such as projected costs for completing the file reviews and remediation amounts that would have been pai...