Stock exchanges (1 - 10 of 46 items)
Financial Audit: Securities and Exchange Commission's Fiscal Years 2013 and 2012 Financial Statements [Reissued on December 23, 2013]
GAO-14-213R: Published: Dec 16, 2013. Publicly Released: Dec 16, 2013.
GAO found (1) the United States Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) and its Investor Protection Fund's (IPF) financial statements are presented fairly, in all material respects, in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles; (2) SEC maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2013, although internal control...
Financial Regulation: Clearer Goals and Reporting Requirements Could Enhance Efforts by CFTC and SEC to Harmonize Their Regulatory Approaches
GAO-10-410: Published: Apr 22, 2010. Publicly Released: Apr 22, 2010.
The conference report accompanying the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010 directed GAO to assess the joint report of the (SEC) and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) on harmonization of their regulatory approaches. In October 2009, CFTC and SEC issued this report in response to the Department of the Treasury's recommendation that the two agencies assess conflicts in their rules a...
Regulation SHO: Recent Actions Appear to Have Initially Reduced Failures to Deliver, but More Industry Guidance Is Needed
GAO-09-483: Published: May 12, 2009. Publicly Released: Jun 3, 2009.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) adopted Regulation SHO to, among other things, curb the potential for manipulative naked short selling in equity securities. Selling a security short without borrowing the securities needed to settle the trade within the standard 3-day period, can result in failures to deliver (FTD), and can be used to manipulate (drive down) the price of a security. To...
Securities and Exchange Commission: Oversight of U.S. Equities Market Clearing Agencies
GAO-09-318R: Published: Feb 26, 2009. Publicly Released: Mar 26, 2009.
An effective clearance and settlement process is vital to the functioning of equities markets. When investors agree to trade an equity security, the purchaser promises to deliver cash to the seller and the seller promises to deliver the security to the purchaser. The process by which the seller receives payment and the buyer, the securities, is known as clearance and settlement. In the United Stat...
Securities Markets: Decimal Pricing has Contributed to Lower Trading Costs and a More Challenging Trading Environment
GAO-05-535: Published: May 31, 2005. Publicly Released: Jul 1, 2005.
In early 2001, U.S. stock and option markets began quoting prices in decimal increments rather than fractions of a dollar. At the same time, the minimum price increment, or tick size, was reduced to a penny on the stock markets and to 10 cents and 5 cents on the option markets. Although many believe that decimal pricing has benefited small individual (retail) investors, concerns have been raised t...
Securities Markets: Preliminary Observations on the Use of Subpenny Pricing
GAO-04-968T: Published: Jul 22, 2004. Publicly Released: Jul 22, 2004.
In 2001, U.S. stock and options markets, which had previously quoted prices in fractions, began quoting in decimals. Since then, various positive and negative effects have been attributed to the transition to decimal pricing. As part of this transition, the major stock markets chose one penny ($.01) as the minimum price variation for quoting prices for orders to buy or sell. However, some electron...
Securities Markets: Opportunities Exist to Enhance Investor Confidence and Improve Listing Program Oversight
GAO-04-75: Published: Apr 8, 2004. Publicly Released: May 11, 2004.
The equity listing standards of the three largest U.S. securities markets--the American Stock Exchange (Amex), the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (NASDAQ), and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)--have received heightened attention as part of efforts to restore investor confidence following the 2001 terrorist attacks and the unexpected corporate failures beginning that year. GAO was asked to discuss (1)...
Securities Markets: Competition and Multiple Regulators Heighten Concerns about Self-Regulation
GAO-02-362: Published: May 3, 2002. Publicly Released: May 3, 2002.
In the securities markets, competition among self-regulatory organizations (SRO) and their members for customer orders has heightened concerns about conflicts of interest in their roles as both market operators and regulators. Nasdaq--the market run by the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD)--has been in competition with NASD members that run electronic communications networks. For y...
Securities Regulation: Improvements Needed in the Amex Listing Program
GAO-02-18: Published: Nov 27, 2001. Publicly Released: Dec 20, 2001.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has indicated that one-third of Amex's new listings did not meet the exchange's equity listing standards. Amex's listing guidelines address factors that are the same or similar to those addressed by other U.S. stock markets. Quantitative requirements addressed share price, stockholders' equity, income, and market value of publicly held shares. However,...
Securities Pricing: Trading Volumes and NASD System Limitations Led to Decimal-Trading Delay
GGD/AIMD-00-319: Published: Sep 20, 2000. Publicly Released: Oct 24, 2000.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO examined the progress that the securities industry has made toward the implementation of decimal pricing for U.S. stocks, focusing on: (1) what were the specific reasons that the Nasdaq market was not ready for the July 3, 2000, implementation date and how the National Association of Securities Dealers', Inc. (NASD) decimal-trading preparations compared wit...