Banking (1 - 10 of 75 items)
Mortgage-Related Assets: Capital Requirements Vary Depending on Type of Asset
GAO-17-93: Published: Dec 15, 2016. Publicly Released: Dec 15, 2016.
Rules for capital adequacy require banks to hold a percentage of their assets as capital to act as a financial cushion to absorb unexpected losses. Under current rules, banks must hold capital equal to at least 8 percent of risk-weighted assets. Since the early 1990s, U.S. federal banking regulators have used a risk-weighting system under which banks multiply asset amounts by factors, known as ris...
Federal Reserve: Additional Actions Could Help Ensure the Achievement of Stress Test Goals
GAO-17-48: Published: Nov 15, 2016. Publicly Released: Nov 15, 2016.
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Federal Reserve) has two related supervisory programs that involve stress testing but serve different purposes. Stress tests are hypothetical exercises that assess the potential impact of economic, financial, or other scenarios on the financial performance of a company. Stress tests of banking institutions typically evaluate if the institutions...
Mortgage Servicing: Community Lenders Remain Active under New Rules, but CFPB Needs More Complete Plans for Reviewing Rules
GAO-16-448: Published: Jun 23, 2016. Publicly Released: Jul 25, 2016.
Community banks and credit unions (community lenders) remained active in servicing mortgage loans under the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's (CFPB) new mortgage-servicing rules. Among other things, these rules are intended to provide more information to consumers about their loan obligations. The share of mortgages serviced by community lenders in 2015—about 13 percent—remained small com...
Bank Regulation: Lessons Learned and a Framework for Monitoring Emerging Risks and Regulatory Response
GAO-15-365: Published: Jun 25, 2015. Publicly Released: Jun 25, 2015.
Past banking-related crises highlight a number of regulatory lessons learned. These include the importance ofEarly and forceful action. GAO's past work on failed banks found that regulators frequently identified weak management practices that involved the banks in higher-risk activities early on in each crisis, before banks began experiencing declines in capital. However, regulators were not alway...
Community Development Capital Initiative: Status of the Program Investments and Participants
GAO-15-542: Published: May 5, 2015. Publicly Released: May 5, 2015.
As of March 31, 2015, 64 of the 84 participating banks and credit unions remained in the Community Development Capital Initiative (CDCI), and 80 percent of the Department of the Treasury's (Treasury) $570 million total investment remained outstanding. Treasury's most recent estimated lifetime cost of the program—the present value of all program outflows and inflows—was $100 million, an amount...
Large Bank Holding Companies: Expectations of Government Support
GAO-14-621: Published: Jul 31, 2014. Publicly Released: Jul 31, 2014.
While views varied among market participants with whom GAO spoke, many believed that recent regulatory reforms have reduced but not eliminated the likelihood the federal government would prevent the failure of one of the largest bank holding companies. Recent reforms provide regulators with new authority to resolve a large failing bank holding company in an orderly process and require the largest...
Government Support for Bank Holding Companies: Statutory Changes to Limit Future Support Are Not Yet Fully Implemented
GAO-14-174T: Published: Jan 8, 2014. Publicly Released: Jan 8, 2014.
GAO found that from 2007 through 2009, the federal government's actions to stabilize the financial system provided significant funding support and other benefits to bank holding companies and their subsidiaries. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Federal Reserve Board), the Department of the Treasury (Treasury), and FDIC introduced new programs with broad-based eligibility that...
Community Banks and Credit Unions: Impact of the Dodd-Frank Act Depends Largely on Future Rule Makings
GAO-12-881: Published: Sep 13, 2012. Publicly Released: Sep 13, 2012.
While the number of community banks and credit unions has declined in recent years, they have remained important lenders to small businesses and other local customers. From 1985 through 2010, the number of banks under $10 billion in assets and credit unions declined by over 50 percent to 7,551 and 7,339, respectively. The decline resulted largely from consolidations, which were facilitated by chan...
Bank Regulation: Modified Prompt Corrective Action Framework Would Improve Effectiveness
GAO-11-612: Published: Jun 23, 2011. Publicly Released: Jun 23, 2011.
More than 300 insured depository institutions have failed since the current financial crisis began in 2007, at an estimated cost of almost $60 billion to the deposit insurance fund (DIF), which covers losses to insured depositors. Since 1991, Congress has required federal banking regulators to take prompt corrective action (PCA) to identify and promptly address capital deficiencies at institutions...
Banking Regulation: Enhanced Guidance on Commercial Real Estate Risks Needed
GAO-11-489: Published: May 19, 2011. Publicly Released: May 19, 2011.
Since the onset of the financial crisis in 2008, commercial real estate (CRE) loan delinquencies have more than doubled. The federal banking regulators have issued statements and guidance encouraging banks to continue lending to creditworthy borrowers and explaining how banks can work with troubled borrowers. However, some banks have stated that examiners' treatment of CRE loans has hampered their...