Gasoline (1 - 10 of 31 items)
Biofuels: Potential Effects and Challenges of Required Increases in Production and Use
GAO-09-446: Published: Aug 25, 2009. Publicly Released: Oct 2, 2009.
In December 2007, the Congress expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS), which requires rising use of ethanol and other biofuels, from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons in 2022. To meet the RFS, the Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Energy (DOE) are developing advanced biofuels that use cellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover and switchgrass. The Environmental Protection Age...
Energy Markets: Refinery Outages Can Have Varying Gasoline Price Impacts, but Gaps in Federal Data Limit Understanding of Impacts
GAO-09-700: Published: Jul 30, 2009. Publicly Released: Jul 30, 2009.
In 2008, GAO reported that, with the exception of the period following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, refinery outages in the United States did not show discernible trends in reduced production capacity, frequency, and location from 2002 through 2007. Some outages are planned to perform routine maintenance or upgrades, while unplanned outages occur as a result of equipment failure or other unforesee...
Energy Efficiency: Potential Fuel Savings Generated by a National Speed Limit Would Be Influenced by Many Other Factors
GAO-09-153R: Published: Nov 7, 2008. Publicly Released: Nov 7, 2008.
Gasoline prices are volatile and have increased greatly over the last several years, before dropping again recently. The national average of regular grade retail gasoline prices increased from about $2.24 the week of January 2, 2006, to a peak of $4.11 the week of July 14, 2008, an increase of almost 84 percent, before dropping to about $2.40 the week of November 3, 2008. High fuel prices have foc...
Energy Markets: Refinery Outages Can Impact Petroleum Product Prices, but No Federal Requirements to Report Outages Exist
GAO-09-87: Published: Oct 7, 2008. Publicly Released: Nov 6, 2008.
In recent years, global demand for petroleum products such as gasoline and diesel fuel has grown more quickly than the capacity to produce them, creating a tight market. U.S. refiners have been running near capacity, particularly during peak summer demand. In such conditions, unexpected refinery outages can result in price increases that adversely affect consumers. GAO was asked to evaluate (1) th...
Federal Energy Management: Agencies Are Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles but Face Challenges in Meeting Other Fleet Objectives
GAO-09-75R: Published: Oct 22, 2008. Publicly Released: Oct 22, 2008.
Congress and the administration set forth energy objectives for federal fleets with 20 or more vehicles. Agencies are to (1) acquire alternative fuel vehicles (AFV) as 75 percent of all new light-duty vehicle acquisitions; (2) use only alternative fuel in AFVs, unless granted a waiver; (3) increase overall alternative fuel use by 10 percent annually; (4) reduce petroleum consumption by 2 percent a...
Motor Fuels: Stakeholder Views on Compensating for the Effects of Gasoline Temperature on Volume at the Pump
GAO-08-1114: Published: Sep 25, 2008. Publicly Released: Oct 15, 2008.
The volume, but not the energy content, of hydrocarbon fuels, such as gasoline and diesel, varies in response to changes in temperature. Thus, because of expansion, the energy content per gallon of 90 degree fuel is less than that of 60 degree fuel. States and localities adopt and enforce weights and measures regulations, often using the model regulatory standards published by the National Institu...
Crude Oil: Uncertainty about Future Oil Supply Makes It Important to Develop a Strategy for Addressing a Peak and Decline in Oil Production
GAO-07-283: Published: Feb 28, 2007. Publicly Released: Mar 29, 2007.
The U.S. economy depends heavily on oil, particularly in the transportation sector. World oil production has been running at near capacity to meet demand, pushing prices upward. Concerns about meeting increasing demand with finite resources have renewed interest in an old question: How long can the oil supply expand before reaching a maximum level of production--a peak--from which it can only decl...
Meeting Energy Demand in the 21st Century: Many Challenges and Key Questions
GAO-05-414T: Published: Mar 16, 2005. Publicly Released: Mar 16, 2005.
Plentiful, relatively inexpensive energy has been the backbone of much of modern America's economic prosperity and the activities that essentially define our way of life. The energy systems that have made this possible, however, are showing increasing signs of strain and instability, and the consequences of our energy choices on the natural environment are becoming more apparent. The reliable ener...
U.S. Ethanol Market: MTBE Ban in California
GAO-02-440R: Published: Feb 27, 2002. Publicly Released: Mar 5, 2002.
The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act require that an additive be added to gasoline in areas with excessive carbon monoxide or ozone pollution. Specifically, those areas with "severe" ozone pollution are required to use reformulated gasoline, which contains at least two percent oxygen by weight. In California, as in other areas of the country, oil refining companies primarily use the oxygenate...
Alternative Motor Fuels and Vehicles: Impact on the Transportation Sector
GAO-01-957T: Published: Jul 10, 2001. Publicly Released: Jul 10, 2001.
The transportation sector accounts for roughly two thirds of the nation's petroleum consumption and one quarter of the total U.S. energy use. Several steps have been taken during the last 25 years either to reduce petroleum consumption or to increase fuel diversity in the transportation sector, including tax incentives, mandates for alternative fuel vehicles, and laws to promote automobile fuel ef...