Energy consumption (21 - 30 of 227 items)
Energy-Water Nexus: Many Uncertainties Remain about National and Regional Effects of Increased Biofuel Production on Water Resources
GAO-10-116: Published: Nov 30, 2009. Publicly Released: Nov 30, 2009.
In response to concerns about the nation's energy dependence on imported oil, climate change, and other issues, the federal government has encouraged the use of biofuels. Water plays a crucial role in all stages of biofuel production--from cultivation of feedstock through its conversion into biofuel. As demand for water from various sectors increases and places additional stress on already constra...
Federal Energy Management: Agencies Are Taking Steps to Meet High-Performance Federal Building Requirements, but Face Challenges
GAO-10-22: Published: Oct 30, 2009. Publicly Released: Oct 30, 2009.
The federal government is the nation's largest energy consumer. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) establishes high-performance federal building requirements that include reducing energy use and managing storm water runoff. The Department of Energy (DOE), General Services Administration (GSA), Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are...
Biofuels: Potential Effects and Challenges of Required Increases in Production and Use
GAO-09-446: Published: Aug 25, 2009. Publicly Released: Oct 2, 2009.
In December 2007, the Congress expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS), which requires rising use of ethanol and other biofuels, from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons in 2022. To meet the RFS, the Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Energy (DOE) are developing advanced biofuels that use cellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover and switchgrass. The Environmental Protection Age...
Energy Markets: Refinery Outages Can Have Varying Gasoline Price Impacts, but Gaps in Federal Data Limit Understanding of Impacts
GAO-09-700: Published: Jul 30, 2009. Publicly Released: Jul 30, 2009.
In 2008, GAO reported that, with the exception of the period following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, refinery outages in the United States did not show discernible trends in reduced production capacity, frequency, and location from 2002 through 2007. Some outages are planned to perform routine maintenance or upgrades, while unplanned outages occur as a result of equipment failure or other unforesee...
Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Issues Regarding the Inclusion of Refined Petroleum Products as Part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve
GAO-09-695T: Published: May 12, 2009. Publicly Released: May 12, 2009.
The possibility of storing refined petroleum products as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) has been contemplated since the SPR was created in 1975. The SPR, which currently holds about 700 million barrels of crude oil, was created to help insulate the U.S. economy from oil supply disruptions. However, the SPR does not contain refined products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, or jet fuel...
Real Property: Infrastructure Investment Presents Opportunities to Address Long-standing Real Property Backlogs and Reduce Energy Consumption
GAO-09-324T: Published: Jan 22, 2009. Publicly Released: Jan 22, 2009.
Federal agencies have identified billions of dollars in reinvestment requirements to maintain their aging facilities and bring them up to current standards. In addition, according to Department of Energy (DOE) estimates, federal agencies will need over a billion dollars annually through 2015 for projects needed to meet congressional energy efficiency goals. As the nation's single largest energy co...
Energy Efficiency: Potential Fuel Savings Generated by a National Speed Limit Would Be Influenced by Many Other Factors
GAO-09-153R: Published: Nov 7, 2008. Publicly Released: Nov 7, 2008.
Gasoline prices are volatile and have increased greatly over the last several years, before dropping again recently. The national average of regular grade retail gasoline prices increased from about $2.24 the week of January 2, 2006, to a peak of $4.11 the week of July 14, 2008, an increase of almost 84 percent, before dropping to about $2.40 the week of November 3, 2008. High fuel prices have foc...
Energy Markets: Refinery Outages Can Impact Petroleum Product Prices, but No Federal Requirements to Report Outages Exist
GAO-09-87: Published: Oct 7, 2008. Publicly Released: Nov 6, 2008.
In recent years, global demand for petroleum products such as gasoline and diesel fuel has grown more quickly than the capacity to produce them, creating a tight market. U.S. refiners have been running near capacity, particularly during peak summer demand. In such conditions, unexpected refinery outages can result in price increases that adversely affect consumers. GAO was asked to evaluate (1) th...
Federal Energy Management: Agencies Are Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles but Face Challenges in Meeting Other Fleet Objectives
GAO-09-75R: Published: Oct 22, 2008. Publicly Released: Oct 22, 2008.
Congress and the administration set forth energy objectives for federal fleets with 20 or more vehicles. Agencies are to (1) acquire alternative fuel vehicles (AFV) as 75 percent of all new light-duty vehicle acquisitions; (2) use only alternative fuel in AFVs, unless granted a waiver; (3) increase overall alternative fuel use by 10 percent annually; (4) reduce petroleum consumption by 2 percent a...
Motor Fuels: Stakeholder Views on Compensating for the Effects of Gasoline Temperature on Volume at the Pump
GAO-08-1114: Published: Sep 25, 2008. Publicly Released: Oct 15, 2008.
The volume, but not the energy content, of hydrocarbon fuels, such as gasoline and diesel, varies in response to changes in temperature. Thus, because of expansion, the energy content per gallon of 90 degree fuel is less than that of 60 degree fuel. States and localities adopt and enforce weights and measures regulations, often using the model regulatory standards published by the National Institu...