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entitled 'Intercollegiate Athletics: Recent Trends in Teams and 
Participants in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports' which 
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Report to Congressional Addressees: 

United States Government Accountability Office: 

GAO: 

July 2007: 

Intercollegiate Athletics: 

Recent Trends in Teams and Participants in National Collegiate Athletic 
Association Sports: 

GAO-07-535: 

GAO Highlights: 

Highlights of GAO-07-535, a report to congressional addressees 

Why GAO Did This Study: 

Since the 1970s, the roles of women as both students and athletes have 
changed in higher education, with female enrollment surpassing male 
enrollment, and female athletic participation showing gains as well. 
These changes have generated public interest in whether women 
participate in athletics at comparable levels to men and whether menís 
opportunities have decreased as a result of the increased opportunities 
for women. Under the Comptroller Generalís authority, GAO assessed the 
extent to which the numbers of menís and womenís intercollegiate sports 
teams and participants at 4-year colleges have changed from the 1991-
1992 through 2004-2005 school years. 

What GAO Found: 

While the numbers of both menís and womenís intercollegiate sports 
teams increased from 1991-1992 to 2004-2005, womenís teams showed 
greater gains than menís teams. In fact, there have been more womenís 
than menís teams since the mid-to-late 1990s for both the entire NCAA 
membership and the group of colleges that were consistent members of 
the NCAA throughout this period. For both groups of schools, most 
womenís sports and some menís sports showed increases in teams, but 
many menís sports showed mixed or small changes in the number of teams. 

The numbers of both male and female athletic participants increased 
from 1991-1992 to 2004-2005ówith female participants showing larger 
rates of increaseóbut menís participation levels were greater than 
womenís throughout this time period, both in absolute terms and 
relative to their respective enrollments. Most womenís sports and half 
of menís sports showed increases in the number of participants across 
both groups of schools. In the context of enrollment, female 
participation grew at a faster rate than female enrollment in both 
groups of schools. However, from 1991-1992 to 2004-2005, overall 
participation rates were significantly greater for men in at least 
three out of four coed schools in the closed group. 

Figure: Number of Male and Female Participants in the Open and Closed 
Groups, 1991-1992 to 2004-2005 School Years: 

[See PDF for Image] 

Source: GAO analysis of NCAA data. 

Notes: These counts reflect the sum of the participants in each of the 
individual sports that were consistently reported throughout the time 
period. To the extent that athletes participated on more than one team, 
the number of participants may be overstated. 

For the open group, counts for 1995-1996 through 2004-2005 include 
colleges that had applied for but not yet been given full NCAA 
membership status; counts for 1991-1992 through 1994-1995 do not 
include such colleges. 

Open-group participant counts for 1995-1996 through 1998-1999 are NCAA 
estimates based on athletic records collected by schools to meet the 
requirements of the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act. 

[End of figure] 

What GAO Recommends: 

To address these issues, GAO analyzed athletic data from the National 
Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) for two groups of colleges: (a) 
the entire NCAA membership, or open group, for which trends will 
reflect school-level decisions and membership changes, and (b) the 
consistent members of the NCAA throughout this period, or closed group, 
for which trends will reflect school-level decisions only. We used NCAA 
data because they were the only viable option for analyzing annual 
athletic trends for teams and participants over an extended period. We 
analyzed those sports for which team and participant data were reported 
each year for both groups of colleges. 

[Hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-07-535]. 

To view the full product, including the scope and methodology, click on 
the link above. To view the e-supplement online, click on [Hyperlink, 
http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-07-744SP]. For more information, 
contact George A. Scott at (202) 512-7215 or ScottG@gao.gov. 

[End of section] 

Contents: 

Letter: 

Appendix I: Briefing Slides: 

Appendix II: Scope and Methodology: 

NCAA Open-Group Athletic Data: 

NCAA Closed-Group Athletic Data: 

Sport-by-Sport Analyses: 

Department of Education Enrollment Data: 

Appendix III: Schools Included in the Open Group: 

Appendix IV: Schools Included in the Closed Group: 

Appendix V: Comments from the Department of Education: 

Appendix VI: GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments: 

Related GAO Products: 

Tables: 

Table 1: Availability of Team and Participant Data from Various 
Sources: 

Table 2: Sports Included in the NCAA Report and Analyzed for This 
Report: 

Table 3: Open-Group Schools (state abbreviation): 

Table 4: Closed-Group Schools (state abbreviation): 

Abbreviations: 

A & M: Agricultural and Mechanical: 

A & T: Agricultural and Technical: 

CUNY: (The) City University of New York: 

EADA: Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act: 

Education: Department of Education: 

IPEDS: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System: 

NAIA: National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics: 

NCAA: National Collegiate Athletic Association: 

NCCAA: National Christian College Athletic Association: 

NCES: National Center for Education Statistics: 

NFHS: National Federation of State High School Associations: 

NJCAA: National Junior College Athletic Association: 

SUNY: (The) State University of New York: 

USCAA: United States Collegiate Athletic Association: 

United States Government Accountability Office: 
Washington, DC 20548: 

July 12, 2007: 

The Honorable Edward M. Kennedy: 
Chairman: 
The Honorable Michael B. Enzi: 
Ranking Member: 
Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions: 
United States Senate: 

The Honorable Joseph I. Lieberman: 
Chairman: 
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs: 
United States Senate: 

The Honorable George Miller: 
Chairman: 
The Honorable Howard P. "Buck" McKeon: 
Ranking Member: 
Committee on Education and Labor: 
House of Representatives: 

The Honorable Patty Murray: 
United States Senate: 

Since the 1970s, the roles of women as both students and athletes at 
colleges and universities have changed significantly. In particular, 
women's undergraduate enrollment has increased more than twice as fast 
as men's since 1970, and, by 1978, female enrollment surpassed male 
enrollment for the first time. During this same time period, women's 
opportunities in college athletics have increased as well, both in 
terms of the number of female participants and the number of women's 
teams. 

These changes have generated public interest in whether women 
participate in athletics at comparable levels to men and whether men's 
opportunities have decreased as a result of increased opportunities for 
women. To explore these issues, we addressed the following two 
questions under the Comptroller General's authority: 

* To what extent have the numbers of men's and women's intercollegiate 
sports teams at 4-year schools changed in recent years? 

* To what extent have the numbers of male and female participants in 
intercollegiate sports at 4-year schools changed in recent years? 

During the week of March 26-30, 2007, we briefed interested 
congressional staff on the results of our study, and this report 
formally conveys information provided during those briefings. In 
general, we found that women exhibited greater gains than men in 
athletic opportunities from the 1991-1992 to 2004-2005 school years. 
More specifically, we found that: 

* The number of women's teams showed large increases over the period 
and surpassed the number of men's teams by the mid-to-late 1990s. For 
example, the number of women's golf, lacrosse, and soccer teams more 
than doubled from 1991-1992 to 2004-2005. The overall number of men's 
teams showed more modest increases, with the number of wrestling teams 
actually decreasing over the period. 

* The numbers of both male and female participants steadily increased 
from 1991-1992 to 2004-2005. Female participants did show larger rates 
of increase, but men's participation levels were greater than women's, 
both in absolute terms and relative to their respective enrollments, 
throughout this time period. Female participation increased from 1991-
1992 levels more than female enrollment, whereas male participation 
increased at rates similar to male enrollment. However, at the school 
level, overall athletic participation rates were significantly[Footnote 
1] greater for men in at least three out of four coed colleges and 
universities from 1991-1992 to 2004-2005. 

To determine these changes in the numbers of teams and participants at 
4-year schools, we obtained athletic data from the National Collegiate 
Athletics Association (NCAA)[Footnote 2]--the largest athletic 
association in the U.S.--for two groups of colleges and universities: 

* Open Group--This group includes the entire NCAA membership, which 
increased from 847 schools in 1991-1992 to 1,045 schools in 2004-2005. 
Data for this group were obtained from the NCAA's published reports on 
sports sponsorship and participation. Trends observed for this group 
may reflect both school-level decisions to add, drop, expand, or 
contract teams and changes in NCAA membership. 

* Closed Group--This group includes the 750 colleges and universities 
that were consistent members of the NCAA throughout the time 
period[Footnote 3] and that consistently reported team and participant 
information in each year. Data for this group were customized by the 
NCAA for this report. Trends observed for this group reflect school-
level decisions only. 

For our report, we examined all 27 NCAA sports that were consistently 
reported throughout the time period, and we reviewed full-time 
undergraduate enrollment data from the Department of Education for both 
groups of schools to understand the context for the athletic 
trends.[Footnote 4] To determine the reliability of the athletic data, 
we interviewed NCAA officials, assessed the process by which the data 
were collected, performed internal consistency checks, examined year- 
to-year fluctuations, and compared equivalent items across the open and 
closed groups. To assess the reliability of enrollment data, we 
reviewed a data reliability study conducted by the department and 
performed internal quality control checks on the enrollment data. 
Through this process, we determined that both the athletic and 
enrollment data we used were reliable for the purposes of this report. 
For additional information on our study review, please see appendix II. 
For additional results of our analysis by sport, please see GAO-07- 
744SP.[Footnote 5] We conducted our work from December 2005 to June 
2007 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing 
standards. 

This study focused on recent team and participant trends in 
intercollegiate sports for both men and women.[Footnote 6] We did not 
assess the extent to which these trends may be caused or affected by 
external factors--such as gender-equity concerns, budget fluctuations, 
changes in high school and college student populations, or the 
popularity of any one sport--because this was beyond the scope of our 
work. In addition, available data did not allow us to assess the causal 
relationship between athletic trends and these external factors. 

We provided a draft of this report to officials of the U.S. Department 
of Education for review and comment, and also for technical review. In 
written comments on our draft report, Education did not explicitly 
agree or disagree with our findings, but did highlight our finding that 
men had greater overall participation levels than women throughout our 
study period, both in absolute terms and relative to their respective 
enrollments. Education also recommended that we include a footnote 
clarifying that the measures used in this report are distinct from the 
department's standards for assessing compliance with federal laws, and 
we included footnote 6 above. Education further explained that it 
measures whether equal athletic opportunities are provided to men and 
women based on the number of athletic participants, but not the number 
of teams sponsored. In particular, Education said that one of the 
measures the department uses to assess a school's compliance with 
federal laws is whether the percent of male and female athletes at the 
school is "substantially proportionate" to the percent of male and 
female students enrolled in the school. Education's written comments 
appear in appendix V. We also incorporated Education's technical 
comments, where appropriate. Because they are technical and not 
substantive in nature, they are not published in this report. 

We also provided a draft of this report to NCAA officials for technical 
review and incorporated their technical comments, where appropriate. 

We are sending copies of this report to relevant congressional 
committees and other interested parties and will make copies available 
to others upon request. In addition, this report will be available at 
no charge on GAO's Web site at http://www.gao.gov. If you or your staff 
has any questions about this report, please contact me at (202) 512- 
7215 or ScottG@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices of Congressional 
Relations and Public Affairs may be found on the last page of this 
report. Other major contributors to this report are listed in appendix 
VI. 

Signed by: 

George A. Scott: 
Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues: 

[End of section] 

Appendix I: Briefing Slides: 

Intercollegiate Athletics: 

Recent Trends in Teams and Participants in National Collegiate Athletic 
Association Sports: 

Briefing to Congressional Staff: 

March 2007: 

Overview: 

Introduction: 

Research Questions: 

Scope and Methodology: 

Summary of Key Findings: 

Background: 

Findings: 

Introduction: 

More women than men are enrolling in college, and there has been public 
interest in the extent to which similar trends exist in college 
athletics. 

Since 1970, women's undergraduate enrollment has increased more than 
twice as fast as men's. In 1978, female enrollment surpassed male 
enrollment for the very first time. 

During this same time period, women's participation in college 
athletics and the number of women's teams also increased. 

Given these changes, concerns exist as to whether women participate in 
athletics at comparable levels to men and whether men's opportunities 
have decreased as a result of the increase in opportunities for women. 

Research Questions: 

To explore these issues, we developed two research questions. 

To what extent have the numbers of men's and women's intercollegiate 
sports teams at 4-year schools changed in recent years? 

To what extent have the numbers of male and female participants in 
intercollegiate sports at 4-year schools changed in recent years?* 

* This report measures trends in teams and participants in 
intercollegiate athletics. In contrast, the Department of Education has 
separate standards it uses to determine whether institutions of higher 
education provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes 
pursuant to Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 
ßß1681-88). This report does not address-and is not intended to address-
compliance with 4 federal laws or regulations. 

Scope and Methodology: 

To answer these questions, we analyzed athletic data from the National 
Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) for two groups of 4-year 
schools. 

We analyzed NCAA data* for school years 1991/92 through 2004/05** 
reflecting two groups of schools: 

* Open group-the entire NCAA membership (from 847 schools in 1991/92 to 
1,045 schools in 2004/05): 

* Closed group - the 750 schools that were NCAA members throughout this 
time period*** and consistently reported team and participant data each 
year. 

We used a published NCAA report for the open group, and the NCAA 
provided us customized data for the closed group. 

* Over 70 percent of 4-year schools participating in intercollegiate 
athletics were members of the NCAA in 2005. The other major 
intercollegiate athletic associations and the Department of Education 
have also collected athletic data, but the earliest data these sources 
currently have is for the 2000/01 school year. 

** The NCAA no longer has complete closed-group data for before 1991/ 
92. The 2004/05 school year was the most recent year available for NCAA 
members as of this writing. 

*** These schools were not members of the National Association of 
Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA). 

Trends for the two groups can reflect different influences on 
athletics. 

Group of schools: Open group; 
Source of data: Annual NCAA publication; 
Number of schools per year: Varying; 
What trends will reflect: School-level decisions and the changing NCAA 
membership. 

Group of schools: Closed group; 
Source of data: Customized NCAA data; 
Number of schools per year: Fixed; 
What trends will reflect: School-level decisions only. 

[End of table] 

We also reviewed earlier NCAA open-group data and analyzed enrollment 
data to provide underlying context to the athletic trends. 

We reviewed open-group data covering the entire NCAA membership from 
1981/82 through 1990/91.*: 

In addition, we examined full-time, undergraduate enrollment data from 
the Department of Education to understand the context for the athletic 
trends. 

We interviewed NCAA officials and performed internal quality control 
checks on both the athletic and enrollment data and determined that 
these data were reliable for the purposes of this report. 

Our review was conducted in accordance with generally accepted 
government auditing standards. 

* The number of schools included during this time period ranged from 
752 in 1981/82 to 828 in 1990/91. 

Summary of Key Findings: 

Women exhibited greater gains than men in athletic opportunities in 
both the open and closed groups from 1991/92 to 2004/05. 

The number of women's teams increased substantially after 1991/92, and 
men's teams showed modest increases. 

* There have been more women's than men's teams since the mid-to-late 
1990s. 

The numbers of both male and female participants increased after 
1991/92, with female participants showing greater rates of increase. 

* However, from 1991/92 to 2004/05, there were fewer female 
participants than male participants both in absolute terms and relative 
to their respective enrollments. 

Background: 

Athletics trends can vary for different groups of schools and different 
time periods, as found in previous GAO reports. 

GAO report: 1999; 
Group of school analyzed: Closed; 
School years covered: 1985/86 to 1996/97; 
Outcomes measured: Teams and participants; 
Findings: Increases for women, decreases for men. 

GAO report: 2000; 
Group of school analyzed: Open; 
School years covered: 1971/72 to 1997/98; 
Outcomes measured: Participants; 
Findings: Increases for women, decreases for men. 

GAO report: 2001; 
Group of school analyzed: Open; 
School years covered: 1981/82 to 1998/99; 
Outcomes measured: Teams and participants; 
Findings: Increases for women, increases for men. 

[End of table] 

Findings: Teams: 

Men's and women's teams increased from 1991/92 to 2004/05, with women's 
teams showing greater gains. 

The numbers of both men's and women's teams increased from 1991/92 to 
2004/05, with women's teams showing larger increases in both the open 
group of the entire NCAA membership and the closed group of colleges 
that were consistent members of the NCAA throughout this period. 

* However, there were fluctuations from year to year. 

The number of women's teams surpassed the number of men's teams in the 
1990s in both groups. 

The number of teams increased for more women's sports over this time 
period, and one men's sport (wrestling) had a decrease in both groups 
(open: -19%; closed: -21%), but trends varied by sport. 

* For example, men's lacrosse increased by 25 percent or more in both 
groups, while men's swimming /diving increased by less than 5 percent 
in both groups.  

Findings: Teams: 

The number of women's teams surpassed the number of men's teams during 
the 1990s. 

[See PDF for Image] 

Source: GAO analysis of NCAA data. 

Notes: (1) These counts reflect the sum of teams in the individual 
sports that were consistently reported throughout the time period. 

(2) For the open group, counts for 1995/96 through 2004/05 include 
schools that had applied for but not yet been given full membership 
status. Counts for 1991/92 through 1994/95 do not include such schools. 

(3) For the open group, there were 6,401 men's teams and 4,522 women's 
teams in 1981/82. Closed-group data for this period are unavailable. 

[End of figure] 

Findings: Men's Teams, by Sport: 

Many men's sports showed mixed or small changes*, and several others 
showed increases, in the number of teams from 1991/92 to 2004/05. 

[See PDF for image] 

Source: GAO analysis of NCAA data; icons provided by Art Explosion. 

* "Mixed or small trend changes" designates sports that had changes of 
5 percent or more in one direction in one group but also 5 percent or 
more in the opposite direction in the other group, or sports that had 
changes of less than 5 percent in either group. 

[End of figure] 

Findings: Women's Teams, by Sport: 

Most women's sports showed increases* in teams from 1991/92 to 2004/05. 

[See PDF for image] 

Source: GAO analysis of NCAA data; icons provided by Art Explosion. 

* Increases in the number of teams of 5 percent or more. 

** "Mixed or small trend changes" designates sports that had changes of 
5 percent or more in one direction in one group but also 5 percent or 
more in the opposite direction in the other group, or sports that had 
changes of less than 5 percent in either group. 

[End of figure] 

Findings: Participants: 

The numbers of male and female participants increased after 1991/92, 
but men's participation levels were greater than women's from 1991/92 
to 2004/05. 

Overall, the numbers of both male and female participants increased 
from 1991/92 to 2004/05 in both groups. 

* However, there were fluctuations from year to year. 

More women's sports had increases in participants over this time 
period, and one men's sport (wrestling) had a decrease in both groups 
(open: -13%; closed: -15%), but trends varied by sport. 

* For example, women's soccer increased by 135 percent or more in both 
groups, while women's tennis increased by less than 20 percent in both 
groups. 

The increase in female athletic participants was much greater than the 
increase in female enrollment over this time period. However, men had 
greater overall participation levels than women from 1991/92 to 2004/ 
05, both in absolute terms and relative to their respective 
enrollments. 

In both groups, the number of female participants grew faster than the 
number of male participants. 

[See PDF for Image] 

Source: GAO analysis of NCAA data. 

Notes: (1) These counts reflect the sum of the number of individuals 
participating in each of the individual sports that were consistently 
reported throughout the time period. To the extent that some athletes 
participated on more than one team, the number of participants may be 
overstated. 
2) For the open group, counts for 1995/96 through 2004/05 include 
schools that had applied for but not yet been given full membership 
status. Counts for 1991/92 through 1994/95 do not include such schools. 
(3) Open-group participant counts for 1995/96 through 1998/99 are NCAA 
estimates based on athletic records collected by schools to meet the 
requirements of the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA). 1 5 
(4) For the open group, there were 161,632 male participants and 70,526 
female participants in 1981/82. 

[End of figure] 

Closed-group data for this period are unavailable. 

Findings: Male Participants, by Sport: 

Half of the men's sports showed increases*, and several others showed 
mixed or small trend changes, in the number of participants from 1991/ 
92 to 2004/05. 

[See PDF for image] 

Source: GAO analysis of NCAA data; icons provided by Art Explosion. 

* Increases in the number of participants of 5 percent or more. 

** "Mixed or small trend changes" designates sports that had changes of 
5 percent or more in one direction in one group but also 5 percent or 
more in the opposite direction in the other group, or sports that had 
changes of less than 5 percent in either group. 

[End of figure] 

Findings: Female Participants, by Sport: 

Similar to teams, most women's sports showed increases* in participants 
from 1991/92 to 2004/05. 

[See PDF for image] 

Source: GAO analysis of NCAA data; icons provided by Art Explosion. 

* Increases in the number of participants of 5 percent or more. 

** "Mixed or small trend changes" designates sports that had changes of 
5 percent or more in one direction in one group but also 5 percent or 
more in the opposite direction in the other group, or sports that had 
changes of less than 5 percent in either group. 

[End of figure] 

Findings: Participation vs. Enrollment: 

Female participation grew at a faster rate than female enrollment, but 
overall participation levels were greater for men from 1991/92 to 2004/ 
05. 

In both the open and closed groups, the increase in male participation 
was similar to the increase in male enrollment, relative to their 
1991/92 levels, whereas the increase in female participation was more 
than the increase in female enrollment. 

From 1991/92 to 2004/05, men had significantly greater participation in 
athletics than women in at least 3 out of 4 coed schools in the closed 
group. 

* This is both in absolute terms and relative to their respective 
enrollments. 

In the open group, male participation in athletics followed a trend 
similar to male enrollment, but female participation grew more than 
female enrollment. 

[See PDF for Image] 

Source: GAO analysis of NCAA athletic data and Department of Education 
enrollment data. 

Notes: (1) Participation reflects the sum of the number of individuals 
participating in each of the individual sports that were consistently 
reported throughout the time period. 
(2) Participation for 1995/96 through 2004/05 includes schools that had 
applied for but not yet been given full membership status. 
Participation for 1991/92 through 1994/95 does not include such 
schools. 
(3) Participation for 1995/96 through 1998/99 is derived from NCAA 
estimates based on athletic records collected by schools to meet the 
requirements of the EADA. 
(4) Enrollment reflects full-time, undergraduate enrollment. 
(5) Enrollment data for 1999/00 is not available for aggregate 
purposes. 

[End of figure] 

In the closed group, male participation in athletics followed a trend 
similar to male enrollment, but female participation grew more than 
female enrollment. 

[See PDF for Image] 

Source: GAO analysis of NCAA athletic data and Department of Education 
enrollment data. 

Notes: (1) Participation reflects the sum of the number of individuals 
participating in each of the individual sports that were consistently 
reported throughout the time period. 
(2) Enrollment reflects full-time, undergraduate enrollment. 
(3) Enrollment data for 1999/00 is not available for aggregate 
purposes. 
(4) Of the 750 schools in the closed group, 14 reported to the 
Department of Education that they were also members of smaller athletic 
organizations in 2004/05. To the extent that these schools did not 
report comprehensive athletic participation for their students to the 
NCAA, the percentage changes presented in this graph may be over-or 
understated. 

[End of figure] 

From 1991/92 to 2004/05, men had significantly* greater participation i 
n athletics, relative to their enrollment, in at least 3 out of 4 coed 
schools in the closed group. 

[See PDF for Image] 

Source: NCAA analysis of NCAA school-level athletic data and Department 
of Education enrollment data. "Significantly" designates 5 percentage 
points or greater. 

Notes: (1) Participation reflects the sum of the number of individuals 
participating in each of the individual sports that were consistently 
reported throughout the time period. 

(2) Enrollment reflects full-time, undergraduate enrollment at the 715 
schools of the closed group with both male and female enrollment of at 
least 100. Separate campuses that reported enrollment jointly were 
treated as one unit. 

(3) An analysis for the open group was not conducted because the 
published NCAA report does not provide the necessary information. 

(4) Of the 750 schools in the closed group, 14 reported that they were 
also members of smaller athletic organizations. To the extent that 
these schools did not report comprehensive athletic participation for 
their students to the NCAA, the proportions may be over-or understated. 

[End of figure] 

[End of section] 

Appendix II: Scope and Methodology: 

To determine the recent trends in teams and participants in 
intercollegiate athletics, we analyzed athletic data from the National 
Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) and enrollment data from the 
department of Education (Education) for two groups of colleges and 
universities: 

* Open Group--This group includes the entire NCAA membership, which 
increased from 847 schools in the 1991-1992 school year to 1,045 
schools in the 2004-2005 school year. Observed trends for this group 
will reflect both school-level sports sponsorship decisions and changes 
in NCAA membership. The primary source of athletic data for this group 
was the NCAA's 1981-82 to 2004-05 Sports Sponsorship and Participation 
Rates Report, which is available from the NCAA Web site hyperlink, 
(http://www2.ncaa.org/portal/media_and_events/ncaa_publications/research
). Data from this publication were modified for the purposes of this 
report via correspondence with NCAA officials, as discussed below. The 
source of aggregate enrollment data for this group was Education's 
Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Peer Analysis 
System, also available on the Internet (hyperlink, 
http://nces.ed.gov/ipedspas). See appendix III for the list of schools 
that were included in the open group at any time during the study 
period. 

* Closed Group--This group includes the fixed group of 750 colleges and 
universities that were consistent members of the NCAA throughout the 
time period, that were not members of the National Association of 
Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) at any time during the time 
period,[Footnote 7] and that reported team and participant information 
in each year of our time period. The NCAA analyzed its internal school-
level data and provided us customized team and participant aggregate 
statistics for use in this report, as discussed hereafter. The source 
of enrollment data for this group was also Education's IPEDS Peer 
Analysis System. For the school-level comparison between athletic 
participation and enrollment, we provided the NCAA school-level 
enrollment data for its members from IPEDS, and the NCAA used these 
data in concert with its school-level athletic data to generate the 
results of this comparison. See appendix IV for the list of 750 schools 
that were included in the closed group. 

Annual athletic data for the open group are available from the NCAA for 
the 1981-1982 through 2004-2005 school years, but data for the closed 
group are available only for the 1991-1992 through 2004-2005 school 
years. Thus, the focus of this report is on the 1991-1992 through 2004-
2005 period. For both groups, total participant counts reflect the sum 
of the number of individuals participating in each of the individual 
sports that were consistently reported throughout the time period. To 
the extent that some athletes participated on more than one team, the 
number of participants may be overstated. 

Enrollment data are available from Education from the 1991-1992 through 
1998-1999 and 2000-2001 through 2004-2005 school years; data for the 
1999-2000 school year for aggregate analysis have not been publicly 
released, and Education has no plans to release such data in the 
future.[Footnote 8] As a result, enrollment data for this school year 
were omitted from the aggregate comparisons between athletic 
participation and enrollment provided on slides 19 and 20 of appendix 
I. However, school-level data for school-level analysis are available 
for 1999-2000, so this year was included for schools reporting 
enrollment data for the school-level comparison provided on slide 21 of 
appendix I. 

We interviewed NCAA officials and performed internal quality control 
checks on both the athletic and enrollment data and determined that 
these data were reliable for the purposes of this report. We conducted 
our work from December 2005 to June 2007 in accordance with generally 
accepted government auditing standards. 

We did not assess the extent to which these trends may be caused or 
affected by external factors--such as gender-equity concerns, budget 
fluctuations, changes in high school and college student populations, 
or the popularity of any one sport--because this was beyond the scope 
of our work. However, in 2001 we presented reasons self-reported by 
school administrators for why teams were added and dropped.[Footnote 9] 
Also, the introduction to the NCAA sports sponsorship and participation 
report presents several other potentially influential factors as well. 

For this report, we examined the possibility of using data from the 
other national athletic associations--including the NAIA, the National 
Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA), the National Junior 
College Athletic Association (NJCAA), and the United States Collegiate 
Athletic Association (USCAA)--as well as individual athletic 
conferences (e.g., Big Ten Conference), institutions of higher 
education, the National Federation of State High School Associations 
(NFHS), and state governing organizations for high schools. We found 
that nationally representative team and participant annual data are not 
systematically available at either the college or high school level for 
before the 2000-2001 school year.[Footnote 10] Education now collects 
and stores athletic team and participant data via the Equity in 
Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA), but Education does not have these data 
for before the 2000-2001 school year. Furthermore, Education officials 
expressed some concerns about the reliability of EADA data.[Footnote 
11] Thus, we determined that the NCAA data were the only viable option 
for analyzing annual athletic trends for teams and participants for 
both open and closed groups of colleges and universities over an 
extended period. 

Table 1: Availability of Team and Participant Data from Various 
Sources: 

Information required: Number of men's and women's sports teams, by 
school; 
Availability of information, by source: Schools: Media guides; (data 
quality may vary by year and by gender); EADA records; 
Availability of information, by source: Conferences: Annual reports for 
all years; 
Availability of information, by source: Athletic associations: 
NCAA: 1991-1992-present; 
NAIA: 200-2001-present; 
NCCAA: not available; 
USCAA: 2004-2005-present; 
NJCAA: 2004-2005-present; 
NFHS: not available; 
Availability of information, by source: Education: EADA data for; 2000-
2001 - present. 

Information required: Numbers of men and women participating in school 
sports, by school;
Availability of information, by source: Schools: Media guides and squad 
lists; (data quality may vary by year and by gender); EADA records; 
Availability of information, by source: Conferences: Not available; 
Availability of information, by source: Athletic associations: 
NCAA: 1991-1992-present; 
NAIA: 200-2001-present; 
NCCAA: not available; 
USCAA: 2004-2005-present; 
NJCAA: 2004-2005-present; 
NFHS: not available; 
Availability of information, by source: Education: EADA data for; 2000-
2001 - present. 

Information required: Men's and women's sports teams and participants, 
in aggregate; 
Availability of information, by source: Schools: Not available; 
Availability of information, by source: Conferences: Not available; 
Availability of information, by source: Athletic associations: 
NCAA: 1981-1982-present; 
NAIA: unknown; 
NCCAA: 1994-1995-present; 
USCAA: 2001-2002-present; 
NJCAA: 2000-2001-present; 
NFHS: 1971-1972-present; 
Availability of information, by source: Education: EADA data for; 2000-
2001 - present. 

Source: GAO interviews with school, conference, association, and 
Education officials. 

[End of table] 

NCAA Open-Group Athletic Data: 

The NCAA's 1981-82 to 2004-05 Sports Sponsorship and Participation 
Rates Report provides annual data on the number of teams sponsored and 
the number of participants by sport and in aggregate for all men's (27) 
and women's (27) sports sponsored by the NCAA. Please see this original 
report for variable definitions and factors influencing historical 
trends, such as changes in data collection procedures that occurred 
between 1981-1982 and 2004-2005. This NCAA report is based on reports 
provided by schools to the NCAA each year,[Footnote 12] and the NCAA 
uses these school reports to help manage its sports championships, 
scholarships, and divisional championship realignment. We used the team 
and participant data directly from the NCAA report. 

Because the NCAA membership has changed annually, changes in the 
aggregate figures for the NCAA may reflect both school-level decisions 
to add, drop, expand, or contract teams and the changing membership 
itself. 

We modified some data presented in the tables of the NCAA report to 
resolve apparent inconsistencies and unexplained fluctuations of those 
published data. With regard to consistency, we compared aggregate 
figures for each sport to the sum of disaggregated figures for the 
corresponding sports. Where internal inconsistency or large and 
unexplained fluctuations (e.g., apparent numerical typographical 
errors) were found, we determined, in concert with NCAA officials, 
whether and how to correct those data to resolve those inconsistencies. 
With regard to fluctuations, we examined year-to-year fluctuations in 
the athletic data for each sport and in aggregate. Where large and 
unexplained fluctuations were found--such as with the case of apparent 
numerical/typographical errors--we determined, in concert with NCAA 
officials, whether and how to correct those data as well. Thus, there 
are a small number of data points used for this report that differ from 
what is published in the NCAA report. 

NCAA Closed-Group Athletic Data: 

To isolate the effect of school-level decisions to add, drop, expand, 
or contract sport teams on athletic trends from (a) the changing NCAA 
membership, (b) the effect of schools being members of both the NCAA 
and another athletic association and not reporting comprehensive 
athletic information to the NCAA, and (c) inconsistent annual reporting 
by certain schools, we constructed, in concert with the NCAA, a fixed, 
or "closed," group of schools that met all three (3) of the following 
criteria: 

* They were members of the NCAA in each year from 1991-1992 to 2004-
2005. 

* They were not also members of the second-largest athletic 
association, the NAIA, in any year from 1991-1992 to 2004-2005. 

* They reported team and participant information in each year from 1991-
1992 to 2004-2005. 

This yielded a group of 750 schools, or just over 88 percent of the 
overall NCAA membership in 1991-1992 and just under 72 percent of the 
overall membership in 2004-2005. Of this group, 14 schools reported to 
Education via IPEDS that they were also members of an athletic 
organization other than the NAIA in at least one year of our study 
period. To the extent that these schools progressively reported more of 
their female sport information to the NCAA over time, increases in 
female trends relative to male trends may be slightly overstated. To 
the extent that these schools progressively reported more of their male 
sport information over time, increases in female trends relative to 
male trends may be slightly understated. 

The NCAA has retained school-level team and participant data for its 
entire membership from the 1991-1992 school year to the present. 
Because the NCAA classifies its school-level information as private, 
the NCAA analyzed team and participant data for this closed group in-
house and then provided aggregate figures for this closed group and the 
programming code used to generate these figures. NCAA officials noted 
that data for school years 1993-1994, 1998-1999, and 2000-2001 may be 
slightly less consistent than data for the other school years of the 
study period. We reviewed the NCAA's programming code and had the NCAA 
make adjustments and corrections where necessary. We examined the 
internal consistency of the data for the closed group that resulted 
from this code by comparing aggregate figures to the sum of 
disaggregated figures and by examining year-to-year fluctuations in the 
athletic data. We also compared figures for the closed-group to the 
equivalent figures for the open group. Where internal inconsistency, 
inconsistency between the open and closed group, or large and 
unexplained fluctuations were found, we eliminated those data from our 
analysis, as discussed below. Through our assessment and the 
elimination of inconsistent data, we determined that data used for the 
closed group were sufficient for the purposes of our report. 

Sport-by-Sport Analyses: 

Our sport-by-sport and aggregate figures reflect the 14 men's and 13 
women's sports that had team and participant information reported 
throughout the study period, that are comparable across the open and 
closed groups, and for which male and female data exist separately. 
This report does not contain all the results of our trend analysis. A 
more detailed analysis by sport can be viewed at GAO-07-744SP. 

With regard to reporting consistency, the NCAA has retained historical 
figures for each of its sports for each year in which either the sport 
was identified as emerging or the NCAA held a championship for that 
sport as well as various other years. To the extent that several sports 
have emerged or added a championship since the 1991-1992 school year, 
data tend to be more comprehensive across the 54 NCAA sports in recent 
years relative to the beginning of our study period. However, to become 
an emerging sport, there must already be 20 or more NCAA-sponsored and/ 
or competitive club teams that exist in that sport, and there must be 
other signs of sustained and increasing interest in the sport. Thus, 
nonentries in a given year of NCAA data do not necessarily reflect a 
lack of sponsorship or participation in that year. Furthermore, several 
sports have data for the beginning and end of our study period, but not 
the intervening years. To account for the inconsistency of reporting 
across sports and across time, the NCAA included in its customized data 
only the subset of sports for which data were reported in each year of 
the study period. 

To enable a direct comparison between the open and closed groups, we 
analyzed only those sports for which data existed in each year and in 
both the open and closed groups. The sports included in the closed-
group data narrowed the list of included sports substantially, but we 
also compared figures across the two groups for external consistency as 
well. In particular, we eliminated four sports where aggregate figures 
for the closed group were larger than aggregate figures for the open 
group, which is impossible by construction. 

With regard to the reporting of male and female participant counts, the 
NCAA has reported male and female athletic data for coed/mixed-gender 
sports differently over time. For some years, overall participant 
counts for mixed-gender sports were divided in half when allocated to 
male and female participant counts, and for other years actual counts 
were recorded. Because of this inconsistency in reporting, participant 
counts for sports such as fencing, rifle, and skiing for certain years 
may not reflect actual male and female participants, and thus these 
sports were not included in this report. In summary, the sports we 
analyzed: 

(a) have data reported in each year of the study period, 

(b) were common to or reported in both groups of data analyzed (open 
group and closed group), and: 

(c) excluded certain coed-mixed gender sports because of inconsistent 
reporting across the study period. 

Ultimately, this yielded the 14 men's and 13 women's sports analyzed in 
this report, whose participants reflect 98 percent of the NCAA's 
overall male participation and 99 percent of the overall female 
participation in 1991-1992, and 99 percent and 93 percent of male and 
female participation, respectively, in 2004-2005. See Table 2 for the 
sports included in the NCAA report and analyzed for this report. 

Table 2: Sports Included in the NCAA Report and Analyzed for This 
Report: 

Men's sports included in both the NCAA and GAO reports (14): Baseball; 
Basketball; Cross-Country; Football; Golf; Ice Hockey; Lacrosse; 
Soccer; Swimming/Diving; Tennis; Track, Indoor; Track, Outdoor; 
Volleyball; Wrestling. 

Men's sports included only in the NCAA report (13): Archery; Badminton; 
Bowling; Equestrian; Fencing; Gymnastics; Rifle; Rowing; Rugby; 
Sailing; Skiing; Squash; Water Polo. 

Women's sports included in both the NCAA and GAO reports (13): 
Basketball; Cross-Country; Field Hockey; Golf; Gymnastics; Lacrosse; 
Soccer; Softball; Swimming/Diving; Tennis; Track, Indoor; Track, 
Outdoor; Volleyball. 

Women's sports included only in the NCAA report (14): Archery; 
Badminton; Bowling; Equestrian; Fencing; Ice Hockey; Rifle; Rowing; 
Rugby; Skiing; Squash; Synchronized Swimming; Team Handball; Water 
Polo. 

Source: GAO analysis. 

[End of table] 

Department of Education Enrollment Data: 

For both aggregate and school-level enrollment, we obtained full-time, 
undergraduate enrollment data from IPEDS, which is the core 
postsecondary education data collection program for the National Center 
for Education Statistics (NCES), which, in turn, is the primary federal 
entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education. 
Specifically, IPEDS is a single, comprehensive system of surveys 
designed to collect institution-level data from all primary providers 
of postsecondary education in such areas as student enrollment and 
program completion, faculty and staff characteristics, and school 
finances. We obtained aggregate enrollment data for both the open and 
closed groups based on the schools listed in the annual NCAA membership 
directories and the list of 750 schools included in the closed group. 
These data are the basis for our aggregate comparisons between 
participation and enrollment, presented in slides 19 and 20 of appendix 
I. Officials from Education noted that the agency did not complete data 
reliability testing for the purpose of extrapolating reported 
institutional data from the 1999-2000 school year to generate aggregate 
figures because reporting for this earlier period was optional to the 
schools and reporting rates were particularly low for this year. Thus, 
we did not include aggregate figures for 1999-2000 for this analysis. 

For the school-level comparisons between participation and enrollment, 
we provided the NCAA with school-by-school enrollment for each year in 
our study period for schools that reported enrollment information 
through IPEDS in each year and that had male and female enrollment each 
of at least 100 in each year of the study period, characterized as 
"coed schools." In addition, several college and university campuses 
reported either athletic data to the NCAA or enrollment data to 
Education jointly with other campuses. To ensure the compatibility of 
athletic and enrollment data, we merged the data for these campuses 
together and treated the campuses collectively as one unit. This 
resulted in enrollment data being provided for 715 schools or school-
campus combinations in the closed group, and the resultant NCAA 
analysis is what is presented in slide 21 of appendix I. Although 
Education has not released enrollment figures for 1999-2000 for 
aggregate reporting purposes, officials from Education noted that data 
that have been reported are reliable for school-level reporting 
purposes, so 1999-2000 is included in this analysis. 

Because IPEDS data are statistical agency data that are collected and 
audited within the NCES, we focused our reliability testing on the 
consistency between internal NCES data documentation and downloaded 
data, and we examined the consistency of summary statistics and the 
frequency of missing values across years. Our testing found no 
differences between our files and the IPEDS data dictionaries, no 
unusual increases in the frequency of missing variables across years 
(other than for 1999-2000), and no changes in the mean or standard 
deviation of enrollment above 5 percent and no changes in the maximum 
or minimum enrollment per school above 10 percent from one year to the 
next. In addition, NCES has completed individual data reliability 
testing for its 1991-1992 through 2005-2006 data and released a 2005 
report detailing the reliability of its enrollment data, among other 
data. (See Hyperlink, 
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2005175 to access this 
report.) Therefore, we determined that the IPEDS enrollment data are 
sufficiently reliable for the purposes of this report. 

[End of section] 

Appendix III: Schools Included in the Open Group: 

[End of section] 

The following 1,052 schools were included in the overall NCAA 
membership for at least one year from 1991-1992 to 2004-2005. This list 
is based on the NCAA's annual membership lists for this period. 

Table 3: Open-Group Schools (state abbreviation): 

Abilene Christian University (Tex.); 
Adams State College (Colo.); 
Adelphi University (N.Y.); 
Adrian College (Mich.); 
Agnes Scott College (Ga.); 
Alabama A & M University (Ala.); 
Alabama State University (Ala.); 
Albany State University (Ga.); 
Albertus Magnus College (Conn.); 
Albion College (Mich.); 
Albright College (Pa.); 
Alcorn State University (Miss.); 
Alderson Broaddus College (W.Va.); 
Alfred University (N.Y.); 
Allegheny College (Pa.); 
Alma College (Mich.); 
Alvernia College (Pa.); 
Alverno College (Wis.); 
American International College (Mass.); 
American University (D.C.); 
American University of Puerto Rico (P.R.); 
Amherst College (Mass.); 
Anderson College (S.C.); 
Anderson University (Ind.); 
Angelo State University (Tex.); 
Anna Maria College (Mass.); 
Appalachian State University (N.C.); 
Arcadia University (Pa.); 
Arizona State University at the Tempe Campus (Ariz.); 
Arkansas State University-Main Campus (Ark.); 
Arkansas Tech University (Ark.); 
Armstrong Atlantic State University (Ga.); 
Asbury College (Ky.); 
Ashland University (Ohio); 
Assumption College (Mass.); 
Auburn University Main Campus (Ala.); 
Augsburg College (Minn.); 
Augusta State University (Ga.); 
Augustana College (Ill.); 
Augustana College (S.D.); 
Aurora University (Ill.); 
Austin College (Tex.); 
Austin Peay State University (Tenn.); 
Averett University (Va.); 
Babson College (Mass.); 
Baldwin-Wallace College (Ohio); 
Ball State University (Ind.); 
Baptist Bible College and Seminary (Pa.); 
Bard College (N.Y.); 
Barnard College (N.Y.); 
Barry University (Fla.); 
Barton College (N.C.); 
Bates College (Maine); 
Bay Path College (Mass.); 
Baylor University (Tex.); 
Becker College (Mass.); 
Bellarmine University (Ky.); 
Belmont Abbey College (N.C.); 
Belmont University (Tenn.); 
Beloit College (Wis.); 
Bemidji State University (Minn.); 
Benedict College (S.C.); 
Benedictine University (Ill.) 
Bennett College (N.C.); 
Bentley College (Mass.); 
Berea College (Ky.); 
Bethany College (W.Va.); 
Bethel University (Minn.); 
Bethune Cookman College (Fla.); 
Birmingham Southern College (Ala.); 
Blackburn College (Ill.); 
Bloomfield College (N.J.); 
Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Bluefield State College (W.Va.); 
Bluffton University (Ohio); 
Boise State University (Idaho); 
Boston College (Mass.); 
Boston University (Mass.); 
Bowdoin College (Maine); 
Bowie State University (Md.); 
Bowling Green State University-Main Campus (Ohio); 
Bradley University (Ill.); 
Brandeis University (Mass.); 
Bridgewater College (Va.); 
Bridgewater State College (Mass.); 
Brigham Young University (Utah); 
Brigham Young University-Hawaii Campus (Hawaii); 
Brown University (R.I.); 
Bryant University (R.I.); 
Bryn Mawr College (Pa.); 
Bucknell University (Pa.); 
Buena Vista University (Iowa); 
Butler University (Ind.); 
Cabrini College (Pa.); 
Caldwell College (N.J.); 
California Institute of Technology (Calif.); 
California Lutheran University (Calif.); 
California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo (Calif.); 
California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (Calif.); 
California State University-Bakersfield (Calif.); 
California State University-Chico (Calif.); 
California State University-Dominguez Hills (Calif.); 
California State University-East Bay (Calif.); 
California State University-Fresno (Calif.); 
California State University-Fullerton (Calif.); 
California State University-Long Beach (Calif.); 
California State University-Los Angeles (Calif.); 
California State University-Northridge (Calif.); 
California State University-Sacramento (Calif.); 
California State University-San Bernardino (Calif.); 
California State University-Stanislaus (Calif.); 
California University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Calvin College (Mich.); 
Cameron University (Okla.); 
Campbell University Inc (N.C.); 
Canisius College (N.Y.); 
Capital University (Ohio); 
Carleton College (Minn.); 
Carnegie Mellon University (Pa.); 
Carroll College (Wis.); 
Carson-Newman College (Tenn.); 
Carthage College (Wis.); 
Case Western Reserve University (Ohio); 
Castleton State College (Vt.); 
Catawba College (N.C.); 
Catholic University of America (D.C.); 
Cazenovia College (N.Y.); 
Cedar Crest College (Pa.); 
Centenary College (N.J.); 
Centenary College of Louisiana (La.) 
Central College (Iowa); 
Central Connecticut State University (Conn.); 
Central Michigan University (Mich.); 
Central Missouri State University (Mo.); 
Central Washington University (Wash.); 
Centre College (Ky.); 
Chadron State College (Neb.); 
Chaminade University of Honolulu (Hawaii); 
Chapman University (Calif.); 
Charleston Southern University (S.C.); 
Chatham College (Pa.); 
Chestnut Hill College (Pa.); 
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Chicago State University (Ill.); 
Chowan College (N.C.); 
Christian Brothers University (Tenn.); 
Christopher Newport University (Va.); 
Citadel Military College of South Carolina (S.C.); 
Claremont McKenna College (Calif.); 
Clarion University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Clark Atlanta University (Ga.); 
Clark University (Mass.); 
Clarke College (Iowa); 
Clarkson University (N.Y.); 
Clayton College and State University (Ga.); 
Clemson University (S.C.); 
Cleveland State University (Ohio); 
Coastal Carolina University (S.C.); 
Coe College (Iowa); 
Coker College (S.C.); 
Colby College (Maine); 
Colby-Sawyer College (N.H.); 
Colgate University (N.Y.); 
College Misericordia (Pa.); 
College of Charleston (S.C.); 
College of Mount Saint Joseph (Ohio); 
College of Mount Saint Vincent (N.Y.); 
College of Notre Dame of Maryland (Md.); 
College of Our Lady of the Elms (Mass.); 
College of Saint Benedict (Minn.); 
College of Saint Elizabeth (N.J.); 
College of St Catherine (Minn.); 
College of the Holy Cross (Mass.); 
College of William and Mary (Va.); 
College of Wooster (Ohio); 
Colorado Christian University (Colo.); 
Colorado College (Colo.); 
Colorado School of Mines (Colo.); 
Colorado State University (Colo.); 
Colorado State University-Pueblo (Colo.); 
Columbia Union College (Md.); 
Columbia University in the City of New York (N.Y.); 
Columbus State University (Ga.); 
Concord University (W.Va.); 
Concordia College (N.Y.); 
Concordia College at Moorhead (Minn.); 
Concordia University (Ill.); 
Concordia University at Austin (Tex.); 
Concordia University-St Paul (Minn.); 
Concordia University-Wisconsin (Wis.); 
Connecticut College (Conn.); 
Converse College (S.C.); 
Coppin State University (Md.); 
Cornell College (Iowa); 
Cornell University-Endowed Colleges (N.Y.); 
Creighton University (Neb.); 
CUNY Bernard M Baruch College (N.Y.); 
CUNY Brooklyn College (N.Y.); 
CUNY City College (N.Y.); 
CUNY College of Staten Island (N.Y.); 
CUNY Hunter College (N.Y.); 
CUNY John Jay College Criminal Justice (N.Y.); 
CUNY Lehman College (N.Y.); 
CUNY Medgar Evers College (N.Y.); 
CUNY New York City College of Technology (N.Y.); 
CUNY Queens College (N.Y.) 
CUNY York College (N.Y.); 
Curry College (Mass.); 
Dallas Baptist University (Tex.); 
Daniel Webster College (N.H.); 
Dartmouth College (N.H.); 
Davidson College (N.C.); 
Davis and Elkins College (W.Va.); 
Defiance College (Ohio); 
Delaware State University (Del.); 
Delaware Valley College (Pa.); 
Delta State University (Miss.); 
Denison University (Ohio); 
Depaul University (Ill.); 
Depauw University (Ind.); 
Desales University (Pa.); 
Dickinson College (Pa.); 
Dominican College of Blauvelt (N.Y.); 
Dominican University (Ill.); 
Dowling College (N.Y.); 
Drake University (Iowa); 
Drew University (N.J.); 
Drexel University (Pa.); 
Drury University (Mo.); 
Duke University (N.C.); 
Duquesne University (Pa.); 
D'Youville College (N.Y.); 
Earlham College (Ind.); 
East Carolina University (N.C.); 
East Central University (Okla.); 
East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
East Tennessee State University (Tenn.); 
East Texas Baptist University (Tex.); 
Eastern Connecticut State University (Conn.); 
Eastern Illinois University (Ill.); 
Eastern Kentucky University (Ky.); 
Eastern Mennonite University (Va.); 
Eastern Michigan University (Mich.); 
Eastern Nazarene College (Mass.); 
Eastern New Mexico University-Main Campus (N.M.); 
Eastern Oregon University (Ore.); 
Eastern University (Pa.); 
Eastern Washington University (Wash.); 
Eckerd College (Fla.); 
Edgewood College (Wis.); 
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Elizabeth City State University (N.C.); 
Elizabethtown College (Pa.); 
Elmhurst College (Ill.); 
Elmira College (N.Y.); 
Elon University (N.C.); 
Emerson College (Mass.); 
Emmanuel College (Mass.); 
Emory and Henry College (Va.); 
Emory University (Ga.); 
Emporia State University (Kan.); 
Endicott College (Mass.); 
Erskine College and Seminary (S.C.); 
Eureka College (Ill.); 
Fairfield University (Conn.); 
Fairleigh Dickinson University-College at Florham (N.J.); 
Fairleigh Dickinson University-Metropolitan Campus (N.J.); 
Fairmont State University (W.Va.); 
Farmingdale State University of New York (N.Y.); 
Fayetteville State University (N.C.); 
Felician College (N.J.); 
Ferris State University (Mich.); 
Ferrum College (Va.); 
Fisk University (Tenn.); 
Fitchburg State College (Mass.); 
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (Fla.); 
Florida Atlantic University-Boca Raton (Fla.); 
Florida Gulf Coast University (Fla.) 
Florida Institute of Technology-Melbourne (Fla.); 
Florida International University (Fla.); 
Florida Southern College (Fla.); 
Florida State University (Fla.); 
Fontbonne University (Mo.); 
Fordham University (N.Y.); 
Fort Hays State University (Kan.); 
Fort Lewis College (Colo.); 
Fort Valley State University (Ga.); 
Framingham State College (Mass.); 
Francis Marion University (S.C.); 
Franklin and Marshall College (Pa.); 
Franklin College (Ind.); 
Franklin Pierce College (N.H.); 
Frostburg State University (Md.); 
Furman University (S.C.); 
Gallaudet University (D.C.); 
Gannon University (Pa.); 
Gardner-Webb University (N.C.); 
George Fox University (Ore.); 
George Mason University (Va.); 
George Washington University (D.C.); 
Georgetown University (D.C.); 
Georgia College and State University (Ga.); 
Georgia Institute of Technology-Main Campus (Ga.); 
Georgia Southern University (Ga.); 
Georgia State University (Ga.); 
Georgian Court University (N.J.); 
Gettysburg College (Pa.); 
Glenville State College (W.Va.); 
Goldey-Beacom College (Del.); 
Gonzaga University (Wash.); 
Gordon College (Mass.); 
Goucher College (Md.); 
Grambling State University (La.); 
Grand Canyon University (Ariz.); 
Grand Valley State University (Mich.); 
Green Mountain College (Vt.); 
Greensboro College (N.C.); 
Greenville College (Ill.); 
Grinnell College (Iowa); 
Grove City College (Pa.); 
Guilford College (N.C.); 
Gustavus Adolphus College (Minn.); 
Gwynedd Mercy College (Pa.); 
Hamilton College (N.Y.); 
Hamline University (Minn.); 
Hampden-Sydney College (Va.); 
Hampton University (Va.); 
Hanover College (Ind.); 
Harding University (Ark.); 
Hardin-Simmons University (Tex.); 
Hartwick College (N.Y.); 
Harvard University (Mass.); 
Harvey Mudd College (Calif.); 
Haverford College (Pa.); 
Hawaii Pacific University (Hawaii); 
Heidelberg College (Ohio); 
Henderson State University (Ark.); 
Hendrix College (Ark.); 
High Point University (N.C.); 
Hilbert College (N.Y.); 
Hillsdale College (Mich.); 
Hiram College (Ohio); 
Hobart William Smith Colleges (N.Y.); 
Hofstra University (N.Y.); 
Hollins University (Va.); 
Holy Family University (Pa.); 
Hood College (Md.); 
Hope College (Mich.); 
Howard Payne University (Tex.); 
Howard University (D.C.); 
Humboldt State University (Calif.); 
Huntingdon College (Ala.); 
Husson College (Maine); 
Idaho State University (Idaho); 
Illinois College (Ill.) 
Illinois State University (Ill.); 
Illinois Wesleyan University (Ill.); 
Immaculata University (Pa.); 
Indiana State University (Ind.); 
Indiana University of Pennsylvania-Main Campus (Pa.); 
Indiana University-Bloomington (Ind.); 
Indiana University-Purdue University-Fort Wayne (Ind.); 
Indiana University-Purdue University-Indianapolis (Ind.); 
Iona College (N.Y.); 
Iowa State University (Iowa); 
Ithaca College (N.Y.); 
Jackson State University (Miss.); 
Jacksonville State University (Ala.); 
Jacksonville University (Fla.); 
James Madison University (Va.); 
Jarvis Christian College (Tex.); 
John Carroll University (Ohio); 
Johns Hopkins University (Md.); 
Johnson & Wales University (R.I.); 
Johnson C Smith University (N.C.); 
Johnson State College (Vt.); 
Juniata College (Pa.); 
Kalamazoo College (Mich.); 
Kansas State University (Kan.); 
Kean University (N.J.); 
Keene State College (N.H.); 
Kennesaw State University (Ga.); 
Kent State University-Main Campus (Ohio); 
Kentucky State University (Ky.); 
Kentucky Wesleyan College (Ky.); 
Kenyon College (Ohio); 
Keuka College (N.Y.); 
Kings College (Pa.); 
Knox College (Ill.); 
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
La Roche College (Pa.); 
La Salle University (Pa.); 
Lafayette College (Pa.); 
Lagrange College (Ga.); 
Lake Erie College (Ohio); 
Lake Forest College (Ill.); 
Lake Superior State University (Mich.); 
Lakeland College (Wis.); 
Lamar University (Tex.); 
Lander University (S.C.); 
Lane College (Tenn.); 
Lasell College (Mass.); 
Lawrence University (Wis.); 
Le Moyne College (N.Y.); 
Le Moyne-Owen College (Tenn.); 
Lebanon Valley College (Pa.); 
Lees-Mcrae College (N.C.); 
Lehigh University (Pa.); 
Lenoir-Rhyne College (N.C.); 
Lesley University (Mass.); 
Letourneau University (Tex.); 
Lewis & Clark College (Ore.); 
Lewis University (Ill.); 
Liberty University (Va.); 
Limestone College (S.C.); 
Lincoln Memorial University (Tenn.); 
Lincoln University (Mo.); 
Lincoln University (Pa.); 
Linfield College (Ore.); 
Lipscomb University (Tenn.); 
Livingstone College (N.C.); 
Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Long Island University-Brooklyn Campus (N.Y.); 
Long Island University-C W Post Campus (N.Y.); 
Longwood University (Va.); 
Loras College (Iowa); 
Louisiana College (La.); 
Louisiana State Univ & Ag & Mech & Hebert Laws Ctr (La.) 
Louisiana Tech University (La.); 
Loyola College in Maryland (Md.); 
Loyola Marymount University (Calif.); 
Loyola University Chicago (Ill.); 
Luther College (Iowa); 
Lycoming College (Pa.); 
Lynchburg College (Va.); 
Lynn University (Fla.); 
Macalester College (Minn.); 
MacMurray College (Ill.); 
Maine Maritime Academy (Maine); 
Manchester College (Ind.); 
Manhattan College (N.Y.); 
Manhattanville College (N.Y.); 
Mansfield University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Maranatha Baptist Bible College Inc (Wis.); 
Marian College of Fond Du Lac (Wis.); 
Marietta College (Ohio); 
Marist College (N.Y.); 
Marquette University (Wis.); 
Mars Hill College (N.C.); 
Marshall University (W.Va.); 
Martin Luther College (Minn.); 
Mary Baldwin College (Va.); 
Marymount University (Va.); 
Maryville College (Tenn.); 
Maryville University of Saint Louis (Mo.); 
Marywood University (Pa.); 
Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts (Mass.); 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Mass.); 
Massachusetts Maritime Academy (Mass.); 
McDaniel College (Md.); 
McMurry University (Tex.); 
McNeese State University (La.); 
Medaille College (N.Y.); 
Menlo College (Calif.); 
Mercer University (Ga.); 
Mercy College-Main Campus (N.Y.); 
Mercyhurst College (Pa.); 
Meredith College (N.C.); 
Merrimack College (Mass.); 
Mesa State College (Colo.); 
Messiah College (Pa.); 
Methodist College (N.C.); 
Metropolitan State College of Denver (Colo.); 
Miami University-Oxford (Ohio); 
Michigan State University (Mich.); 
Michigan Technological University (Mich.); 
Middle Tennessee State University (Tenn.); 
Middlebury College (Vt.); 
Midwestern State University (Tex.); 
Miles College (Ala.); 
Millersville University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Millikin University (Ill.); 
Mills College (Calif.); 
Millsaps College (Miss.); 
Milwaukee School of Engineering (Wis.); 
Minnesota State University-Mankato (Minn.); 
Minnesota State University-Moorhead (Minn.); 
Mississippi College (Miss.); 
Mississippi State University (Miss.); 
Mississippi University For Women (Miss.); 
Mississippi Valley State University (Miss.); 
Missouri Southern State University (Mo.); 
Missouri Western State College (Mo.); 
Molloy College (N.Y.); 
Monmouth College (Ill.); 
Monmouth University (N.J.); 
Montana State University-Billings (Mont.); 
Montana State University-Bozeman (Mont.); 
Montclair State University (N.J.); 
Moravian College and Theological Seminary (Pa.) 
Morehead State University (Ky.); 
Morehouse College (Ga.); 
Morgan State University (Md.); 
Morningside College (Iowa); 
Morris Brown College (Ga.); 
Mount Holyoke College (Mass.); 
Mount Ida College (Mass.); 
Mount Olive College (N.C.); 
Mount Saint Mary College (N.Y.); 
Mount St Mary's University (Md.); 
Mount Union College (Ohio); 
Muhlenberg College (Pa.); 
Murray State University (Ky.); 
Muskingum College (Ohio); 
Nazareth College of Rochester (N.Y.); 
Nebraska Wesleyan University (Neb.); 
Neumann College (Pa.); 
New England College (N.H.); 
New Jersey City University (N.J.); 
New Jersey Institute of Technology (N.J.); 
New Mexico Highlands University (N.M.); 
New Mexico State University-Main Campus (N.M.); 
New York Institute of Technology-Old Westbury (N.Y.); 
New York University (N.Y.); 
Newberry College (S.C.); 
Newbury College-Brookline (Mass.); 
Niagara University (N.Y.); 
Nicholls State University (La.); 
Nichols College (Mass.); 
Norfolk State University (Va.); 
North Carolina A & T State University (N.C.); 
North Carolina Central University (N.C.); 
North Carolina State University at Raleigh (N.C.); 
North Carolina Wesleyan College (N.C.); 
North Central College (Ill.); 
North Dakota State University-Main Campus (N.D.); 
North Greenville College (S.C.); 
North Park University (Ill.); 
Northeastern Illinois University (Ill.); 
Northeastern State University (Okla.); 
Northeastern University (Mass.); 
Northern Arizona University (Ariz.); 
Northern Illinois University (Ill.); 
Northern Kentucky University (Ky.); 
Northern Michigan University (Mich.); 
Northern State University (S.D.); 
Northland College (Wis.); 
Northwest Missouri State University (Mo.); 
Northwest Nazarene University (Idaho); 
Northwestern College (Wis.); 
Northwestern State University of Louisiana (La.); 
Northwestern University (Ill.); 
Northwood University (Mich.); 
Norwich University (Vt.); 
Notre Dame De Namur University (Calif.); 
Nova Southeastern University (Fla.); 
Nyack College (N.Y.); 
Oakland City University (Ind.); 
Oakland University (Mich.); 
Oberlin College (Ohio); 
Occidental College (Calif.); 
Oglethorpe University (Ga.); 
Ohio Northern University (Ohio); 
Ohio State University-Main Campus (Ohio); 
Ohio University-Main Campus (Ohio); 
Ohio Valley College (W.Va.); 
Ohio Wesleyan University (Ohio); 
Oklahoma Panhandle State University (Okla.); 
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus (Okla.); 
Old Dominion University (Va.); 
Olivet College (Mich.); 
Oral Roberts University (Okla.); 
Oregon State University (Ore.) 
Otterbein College (Ohio); 
Ouachita Baptist University (Ark.); 
Pace University-New York (N.Y.); 
Pacific Lutheran University (Wash.); 
Pacific University (Ore.); 
Paine College (Ga.); 
Peace College (N.C.); 
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus (Pa.); 
Pennsylvania State University-Penn State Altoona (Pa.); 
Pennsylvania State Univ-Penn St Erie-Behrend Coll (Pa.); 
Pepperdine University (Calif.); 
Pfeiffer University (N.C.); 
Philadelphia Biblical University-Langhorne (Pa.); 
Philadelphia University (Pa.); 
Piedmont College (Ga.); 
Pine Manor College (Mass.); 
Pittsburg State University (Kan.); 
Pitzer College (Calif.); 
Plymouth State University (N.H.); 
Polytechnic University (N.Y.); 
Pomona College (Calif.); 
Portland State University (Ore.); 
Post University (Conn.); 
Prairie View A & M University (Tex.); 
Presbyterian College (S.C.); 
Princeton University (N.J.); 
Principia College (Ill.); 
Providence College (R.I.); 
Purdue University-Main Campus (Ind.); 
Queens University of Charlotte (N.C.); 
Quincy University (Ill.); 
Quinnipiac University (Conn.); 
Radford University (Va.); 
Ramapo College of New Jersey (N.J.); 
Randolph-Macon College (Va.); 
Randolph-Macon Woman's College (Va.); 
Regis College (Mass.); 
Regis University (Colo.); 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (N.Y.); 
Rhode Island College (R.I.); 
Rhodes College (Tenn.); 
Rice University (Tex.); 
Rider University (N.J.); 
Ripon College (Wis.); 
Rivier College (N.H.); 
Roanoke College (Va.); 
Robert Morris University (Pa.); 
Rochester Institute of Technology (N.Y.); 
Rockford College (Ill.); 
Rockhurst University (Mo.); 
Roger Williams University (R.I.); 
Rollins College (Fla.); 
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology (Ind.); 
Rosemont College (Pa.); 
Rowan University (N.J.); 
Rust College (Miss.); 
Rutgers University-Camden (N.J.); 
Rutgers University-New Brunswick (N.J.); 
Rutgers University-Newark (N.J.); 
Sacred Heart University (Conn.); 
Saginaw Valley State University (Mich.); 
Saint Anselm College (N.H.); 
Saint Augustines College (N.C.); 
Saint Bonaventure University (N.Y.); 
Saint Cloud State University (Minn.); 
Saint Edward's University (Tex.); 
Saint Francis University (Pa.); 
Saint John Fisher College (N.Y.); 
Saint Johns University (Minn.); 
Saint Joseph College (Conn.); 
Saint Josephs College (Ind.); 
Saint Josephs College (Maine); 
Saint Josephs College-Suffolk Campus (N.Y.); 
Saint Josephs University (Pa.); 
Saint Leo University (Fla.) 
Saint Louis University-Main Campus (Mo.); 
Saint Martins College (Wash.); 
Saint Mary's College (Ind.); 
Saint Marys College of California (Calif.); 
Saint Mary's University of Minnesota (Minn.); 
Saint Michaels College (Vt.); 
Saint Norbert College (Wis.); 
Saint Olaf College (Minn.); 
Saint Pauls College (Va.); 
Saint Peters College (N.J.); 
Saint Thomas Aquinas College (N.Y.); 
Salem International University (W.Va.); 
Salem State College (Mass.); 
Salisbury University (Md.); 
Salve Regina University (R.I.); 
Sam Houston State University (Tex.); 
Samford University (Ala.); 
San Diego State University (Calif.); 
San Francisco State University (Calif.); 
San Jose State University (Calif.); 
Santa Clara University (Calif.); 
Savannah College of Art and Design (Ga.); 
Savannah State University (Ga.); 
Schreiner University (Tex.); 
Scripps College (Calif.); 
Seattle Pacific University (Wash.); 
Seattle University (Wash.); 
Seton Hall University (N.J.); 
Sewanee: The University of the South (Tenn.); 
Shaw University (N.C.); 
Shenandoah University (Va.); 
Shepherd University (W.Va.); 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Siena College (N.Y.); 
Simmons College (Mass.); 
Simpson College (Iowa); 
Skidmore College (N.Y.); 
Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Smith College (Mass.); 
Sonoma State University (Calif.); 
South Carolina State University (S.C.); 
South Dakota State University (S.D.); 
Southampton College of Long Island University (N.Y.); 
Southeast Missouri State University (Mo.); 
Southeastern Louisiana University (La.); 
Southeastern Oklahoma State University (Okla.); 
Southern Arkansas University Main Campus (Ark.); 
Southern Connecticut State University (Conn.); 
Southern Illinois University Carbondale (Ill.); 
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (Ill.); 
Southern Methodist University (Tex.); 
Southern New Hampshire University (N.H.); 
Southern University and A & M College (La.); 
Southern Utah University (Utah); 
Southern Vermont College (Vt.); 
Southwest Baptist University (Mo.); 
Southwest Minnesota State University (Minn.); 
Southwest Missouri State University (Mo.); 
Southwestern Oklahoma State University (Okla.); 
Southwestern University (Tex.); 
Spelman College (Ga.); 
Springfield College (Mass.); 
St Andrews Presbyterian College (N.C.); 
St Francis College (N.Y.); 
St John's University-New York (N.Y.); 
St Lawrence University (N.Y.) 
St Mary's College of Maryland (Md.); 
St Marys University (Tex.); 
Stanford University (Calif.); 
State University of West Georgia (Ga.); 
Stephen F Austin State University (Tex.); 
Stephens College (Mo.); 
Stetson University (Fla.); 
Stevens Institute of Technology (N.J.); 
Stillman College (Ala.); 
Stonehill College (Mass.); 
Suffolk University (Mass.); 
Sul Ross State University (Tex.); 
SUNY at Albany (N.Y.); 
SUNY at Binghamton (N.Y.); 
SUNY at Buffalo (N.Y.); 
SUNY at Stony Brook (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Brockport (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Buffalo (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Cortland (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Fredonia (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Geneseo (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at New Paltz (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Old Westbury (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Oneonta (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Oswego (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Plattsburgh (N.Y.); 
SUNY Institute of Technology at Utica-Rome (N.Y.); 
SUNY Maritime College (N.Y.); 
SUNY-Potsdam (N.Y.); 
Susquehanna University (Pa.); 
Swarthmore College (Pa.); 
Sweet Briar College (Va.); 
Syracuse University (N.Y.); 
Tarleton State University (Tex.); 
Temple University (Pa.); 
Tennessee State University (Tenn.); 
Tennessee Technological University (Tenn.); 
Texas A & M University (Tex.); 
Texas A & M University-Commerce (Tex.); 
Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi (Tex.); 
Texas A & M University-Kingsville (Tex.); 
Texas Christian University (Tex.); 
Texas Lutheran University (Tex.); 
Texas Southern University (Tex.); 
Texas State University-San Marcos (Tex.); 
Texas Tech University (Tex.); 
Texas Woman's University (Tex.); 
The College of New Jersey (N.J.); 
The College of New Rochelle (N.Y.); 
The College of Saint Rose (N.Y.); 
The College of Saint Scholastica (Minn.); 
The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey (N.J.); 
The Sage Colleges-Troy Campus (N.Y.); 
The University of Alabama (Ala.); 
The University of Findlay (Ohio); 
The University of Montana-Missoula (Mont.); 
The University of Tampa (Fla.); 
The University of Tennessee (Tenn.); 
The University of Tennessee-Chattanooga (Tenn.); 
The University of Tennessee-Martin (Tenn.); 
The University of Texas at Arlington (Tex.); 
The University of Texas at Austin (Tex.); 
The University of Texas at Dallas (Tex.); 
The University of Texas at El Paso (Tex.); 
The University of Texas at San Antonio (Tex.); 
The University of Texas-Pan American (Tex.); 
The University of West Florida (Fla.); 
Thiel College (Pa.); 
Thomas College (Maine); 
Thomas More College (Ky.) 
Tiffin University (Ohio); 
Towson University (Md.); 
Transylvania University (Ky.); 
Trinity College (Conn.); 
Trinity University (D.C.); 
Trinity University (Tex.); 
Troy State University-Main Campus (Ala.); 
Truman State University (Mo.); 
Tufts University (Mass.); 
Tulane University of Louisiana (La.); 
Tusculum College (Tenn.); 
Tuskegee University (Ala.); 
Union College (N.Y.); 
United States Air Force Academy (Colo.); 
United States Coast Guard Academy (Conn.); 
United States Merchant Marine Academy (N.Y.); 
United States Military Academy (N.Y.); 
United States Naval Academy (Md.); 
University of Akron Main Campus (Ohio); 
University of Alabama at Birmingham (Ala.); 
University of Alabama in Huntsville (Ala.); 
University of Alaska Anchorage (Alaska); 
University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska); 
University of Arizona (Ariz.); 
University of Arkansas at Little Rock (Ark.); 
University of Arkansas at Monticello (Ark.); 
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff (Ark.); 
University of Arkansas Main Campus (Ark.); 
University of Bridgeport (Conn.); 
University of California-Berkeley (Calif.); 
University of California-Davis (Calif.); 
University of California-Irvine (Calif.); 
University of California-Los Angeles (Calif.); 
University of California-Riverside (Calif.); 
University of California-San Diego (Calif.); 
University of California-Santa Barbara (Calif.); 
University of California-Santa Cruz (Calif.); 
University of Central Arkansas (Ark.); 
University of Central Florida (Fla.); 
University of Central Oklahoma (Okla.); 
University of Charleston (W.Va.); 
University of Chicago (Ill.); 
University of Cincinnati-Main Campus (Ohio); 
University of Colorado at Boulder (Colo.); 
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs (Colo.); 
University of Connecticut (Conn.); 
University of Dallas (Tex.); 
University of Dayton (Ohio); 
University of Delaware (Del.); 
University of Denver (Colo.); 
University of Detroit Mercy (Mich.); 
University of Dubuque (Iowa); 
University of Evansville (Ind.); 
University of Florida (Fla.); 
University of Georgia (Ga.); 
University of Hartford (Conn.); 
University of Hawaii at Hilo (Hawaii); 
University of Hawaii at Manoa (Hawaii); 
University of Houston-University Park (Tex.); 
University of Idaho (Idaho); 
University of Illinois at Chicago (Ill.); 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Ill.); 
University of Indianapolis (Ind.); 
University of Iowa (Iowa); 
University of Kansas Main Campus (Kan.); 
University of Kentucky (Ky.); 
University of La Verne (Calif.); 
University of Louisiana at Lafayette (La.); 
University of Louisiana at Monroe (La.); 
University of Louisville (Ky.); 
University of Maine (Maine); 
University of Maine at Farmington (Maine); 
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor (Tex.); 
University of Mary Washington (Va.) 
University of Maryland-Baltimore County (Md.); 
University of Maryland-College Park (Md.); 
University of Maryland-Eastern Shore (Md.); 
University of Massachusetts-Amherst (Mass.); 
University of Massachusetts-Boston (Mass.); 
University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth (Mass.); 
University of Massachusetts-Lowell (Mass.); 
University of Memphis (Tenn.); 
University of Miami (Fla.); 
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor (Mich.); 
University of Minnesota-Crookston (Minn.); 
University of Minnesota-Duluth (Minn.); 
University of Minnesota-Morris (Minn.); 
University of Minnesota-Twin Cities (Minn.); 
University of Mississippi Main Campus (Miss.); 
University of Missouri-Columbia (Mo.); 
University of Missouri-Kansas City (Mo.); 
University of Missouri-Rolla (Mo.); 
University of Missouri-St Louis (Mo.); 
University of Montevallo (Ala.); 
University of Nebraska at Kearney (Neb.); 
University of Nebraska at Lincoln (Neb.); 
University of Nebraska at Omaha (Neb.); 
University of Nevada-Las Vegas (Nev.); 
University of Nevada-Reno (Nev.); 
University of New England (Maine); 
University of New Hampshire-Main Campus (N.H.); 
University of New Haven (Conn.); 
University of New Mexico-Main Campus (N.M.); 
University of New Orleans (La.); 
University of North Alabama (Ala.); 
University of North Carolina at Asheville (N.C.); 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (N.C.); 
University of North Carolina at Charlotte (N.C.); 
University of North Carolina at Greensboro (N.C.); 
University of North Carolina at Pembroke (N.C.); 
University of North Carolina-Wilmington (N.C.); 
University of North Dakota-Main Campus (N.D.); 
University of North Florida (Fla.); 
University of North Texas (Tex.); 
University of Northern Colorado (Colo.); 
University of Northern Iowa (Iowa); 
University of Notre Dame (Ind.); 
University of Oklahoma Norman Campus (Okla.); 
University of Oregon (Ore.); 
University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
University of Pittsburgh-Bradford (Pa.); 
University of Pittsburgh-Greensburg (Pa.); 
University of Pittsburgh-Johnstown (Pa.); 
University of Pittsburgh-Main Campus (Pa.); 
University of Portland (Ore.); 
University of Puerto Rico-Bayamon (P.R.); 
University of Puerto Rico-Cayey University College (P.R.); 
University of Puerto Rico-Humacao (P.R.); 
University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez (P.R.); 
University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras Campus (P.R.); 
University of Puget Sound (Wash.); 
University of Redlands (Calif.); 
University of Rhode Island (R.I.); 
University of Richmond (Va.); 
University of Rochester (N.Y.); 
University of San Diego (Calif.); 
University of San Francisco (Calif.); 
University of Scranton (Pa.); 
University of South Alabama (Ala.) 
University of South Carolina Upstate (S.C.); 
University of South Carolina-Aiken (S.C.); 
University of South Carolina-Columbia (S.C.); 
University of South Dakota (S.D.); 
University of South Florida (Fla.); 
University of Southern California (Calif.); 
University of Southern Indiana (Ind.); 
University of Southern Maine (Maine); 
University of Southern Mississippi (Miss.); 
University of St Francis (Ill.); 
University of St Thomas (Minn.); 
University of the District of Columbia (D.C.); 
University of the Incarnate Word (Tex.); 
University of the Ozarks (Ark.); 
University of the Pacific (Calif.); 
University of the Sciences in Philadelphia (Pa.); 
University of Toledo (Ohio); 
University of Tulsa (Okla.); 
University of Utah (Utah); 
University of Vermont and State Agricultural Coll (Vt.); 
University of Virginia-Main Campus (Va.); 
University of Washington-Seattle Campus (Wash.); 
University of West Alabama (Ala.); 
University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Madison (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Parkside (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Platteville (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-River Falls (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Stout (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Superior (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater (Wis.); 
University of Wyoming (Wyo.); 
Upper Iowa University (Iowa); 
Upsala College (N.J.); 
Ursinus College (Pa.); 
Utah State University (Utah); 
Utica College (N.Y.); 
Valdosta State University (Ga.); 
Valparaiso University (Ind.); 
Vanderbilt University (Tenn.); 
Vassar College (N.Y.); 
Villa Julie College (Md.); 
Villanova University (Pa.); 
Virginia Commonwealth University (Va.); 
Virginia Military Institute (Va.); 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ (Va.); 
Virginia State University (Va.); 
Virginia Union University (Va.); 
Virginia Wesleyan College (Va.); 
Wabash College (Ind.); 
Wagner College (N.Y.); 
Wake Forest University (N.C.); 
Wartburg College (Iowa); 
Washburn University (Kan.); 
Washington & Jefferson College (Pa.); 
Washington and Lee University (Va.); 
Washington College (Md.); 
Washington State University (Wash.); 
Washington University in St Louis (Mo.); 
Wayne State College (Neb.); 
Wayne State University (Mich.); 
Waynesburg College (Pa.); 
Weber State University (Utah); 
Webster University (Mo.); 
Wellesley College (Mass.); 
Wells College (N.Y.); 
Wentworth Institute of Technology (Mass.); 
Wesley College (Del.); 
Wesleyan College (Ga.); 
Wesleyan University (Conn.) 
West Chester University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
West Liberty State College (W.Va.); 
West Texas A & M University (Tex.); 
West Virginia State University (W.Va.); 
West Virginia University (W.Va.); 
West Virginia University Institute of Technology (W.Va.); 
West Virginia Wesleyan College (W.Va.); 
Western Carolina University (N.C.); 
Western Connecticut State University (Conn.); 
Western Illinois University (Ill.); 
Western Kentucky University (Ky.); 
Western Michigan University (Mich.); 
Western New England College (Mass.); 
Western New Mexico University (N.M.); 
Western Oregon University (Ore.); 
Western State College of Colorado (Colo.); 
Western Washington University (Wash.); 
Westfield State College (Mass.); 
Westminster College (Mo.); 
Westminster College (Pa.); 
Wheaton College (Ill.); 
Wheaton College (Mass.); 
Wheeling Jesuit University (W.Va.); 
Wheelock College (Mass.); 
Whitman College (Wash.); 
Whittier College (Calif.); 
Whitworth College (Wash.); 
Wichita State University (Kan.); 
Widener University-Main Campus (Pa.); 
Wiley College (Tex.); 
Wilkes University (Pa.); 
Willamette University (Ore.); 
William Paterson University of New Jersey (N.J.); 
William Penn University (Iowa); 
Williams College (Mass.); 
Wilmington College (Del.); 
Wilmington College (Ohio); 
Wilson College (Pa.); 
Wingate University (N.C.); 
Winona State University (Minn.); 
Winston-Salem State University (N.C.); 
Winthrop University (S.C.); 
Wisconsin Lutheran College (Wis.); 
Wittenberg University (Ohio); 
Wofford College (S.C.); 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Mass.); 
Worcester State College (Mass.); 
Wright State University-Main Campus (Ohio); 
Xavier University (Ohio); 
Yale University (Conn.); 
Yeshiva University (N.Y.); 
York College Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Youngstown State University (Ohio). 

Source: NCAA and Department of Education. 

Notes: For some schools, "A & M" no longer signifies "Agricultural and 
Mechanical" but is simply part of the school name: 

School names are listed as they were reported to the Department of 
Education through the IPEDS system. Thus, some names may differ from 
how they are listed in the NCAA membership directories. 

[End of table] 

[End of section] 

Appendix IV: Schools Included in the Closed Group: 

The following 750 schools were included in the closed group of NCAA 
members that met the following three criteria: 

* They were members of the NCAA in each year from 1991-1992 to 2004-
2005. 

* They were not also members of the second-largest athletic 
association, the NAIA, in any year from 1991-1992 to 2004-2005. 

* They reported team and participant information consistently each year 
from 1991-1992 to 2004-2005. 

Table 4: Closed-Group Schools (state abbreviation): 

Abilene Christian University (Tex.); 
Adelphi University (N.Y.); 
Adrian College (Mich.); 
Alabama A & M University (Ala.); 
Alabama State University (Ala.); 
Albany State University (Ga.); 
Albertus Magnus College (Conn.); 
Albion College (Mich.); 
Albright College (Pa.); 
Alcorn State University (Miss.); 
Alfred University (N.Y.); 
Allegheny College (Pa.); 
Alma College (Mich.); 
American International College (Mass.); 
American University (D.C.); 
Angelo State University (Tex.); 
Anna Maria College (Mass.); 
Appalachian State University (N.C.); 
Arizona State University at the Tempe Campus (Ariz.); 
Arkansas State University-Main Campus (Ark.); 
Armstrong Atlantic State University (Ga.); 
Ashland University (Ohio); 
Assumption College (Mass.); 
Auburn University Main Campus (Ala.); 
Augsburg College (Minn.); 
Augusta State University (Ga.); 
Augustana College (Ill.); 
Augustana College (S.D.); 
Aurora University (Ill.); 
Austin Peay State University (Tenn.); 
Averett University (Va.); 
Babson College (Mass.); 
Baldwin-Wallace College (Ohio); 
Ball State University (Ind.); 
Barnard College (N.Y.); 
Barry University (Fla.); 
Bates College (Maine); 
Baylor University (Tex.); 
Bellarmine University (Ky.); 
Beloit College (Wis.); 
Bemidji State University (Minn.); 
Benedictine University (Ill.); 
Bentley College (Mass.); 
Bethany College (W.Va.); 
Bethel University (Minn.); 
Bethune Cookman College (Fla.); 
Blackburn College (Ill.); 
Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Bluffton University (Ohio); 
Boise State University (Idaho); 
Boston College (Mass.); 
Boston University (Mass.); 
Bowdoin College (Maine). 
Bowie State University (Md.); 
Bowling Green State University-Main Campus (Ohio); 
Bradley University (Ill.); 
Brandeis University (Mass.); 
Bridgewater College (Va.); 
Bridgewater State College (Mass.); 
Brigham Young University (Utah); 
Brown University (R.I.); 
Bryant University (R.I.); 
Bryn Mawr College (Pa.); 
Bucknell University (Pa.); 
Buena Vista University (Iowa); 
Cabrini College (Pa.); 
California Institute of Technology (Calif.); 
California Lutheran University (Calif.); 
California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo (Calif.); 
California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (Calif.); 
California State University-Bakersfield (Calif.); 
California State University-Chico (Calif.); 
California State University-Dominguez Hills (Calif.); 
California State University-Fresno (Calif.); 
California State University-Fullerton (Calif.); 
California State University-Long Beach (Calif.); 
California State University-Los Angeles (Calif.); 
California State University-Northridge (Calif.); 
California State University-Sacramento (Calif.); 
California State University-San Bernardino (Calif.); 
California State University-Stanislaus (Calif.); 
California University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Calvin College (Mich.); 
Cameron University (Okla.); 
Campbell University Inc (N.C.); 
Canisius College (N.Y.); 
Capital University (Ohio); 
Carleton College (Minn.); 
Carnegie Mellon University (Pa.); 
Carroll College (Wis.); 
Carthage College (Wis.); 
Case Western Reserve University (Ohio); 
Catholic University of America (D.C.); 
Centenary College of Louisiana (La.); 
Central College (Iowa); 
Central Connecticut State University (Conn.); 
Central Michigan University (Mich.); 
Central Missouri State University (Mo.); 
Centre College (Ky.); 
Chaminade University of Honolulu (Hawaii); 
Chapman University (Calif.); 
Charleston Southern University (S.C.); 
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Christopher Newport University (Va.); 
Citadel Military College of South Carolina (S.C.); 
Claremont Mckenna College (Calif.); 
Clarion University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Clark Atlanta University (Ga.); 
Clark University (Mass.); 
Clarkson University (N.Y.); 
Clemson University (S.C.); 
Cleveland State University (Ohio); 
Coastal Carolina University (S.C.); 
Coe College (Iowa); 
Colby College (Maine); 
Colby-Sawyer College (N.H.); 
Colgate University (N.Y.); 
College of Charleston (S.C.); 
College of Notre Dame of Maryland (Md.); 
College of Our Lady of the Elms (Mass.); 
College of Saint Benedict (Minn.) 
College of Saint Elizabeth (N.J.); 
College of St Catherine (Minn.); 
College of the Holy Cross (Mass.); 
College of William and Mary (Va.); 
College of Wooster (Ohio); 
Colorado Christian University (Colo.); 
Colorado College (Colo.); 
Colorado State University (Colo.); 
Colorado State University-Pueblo (Colo.); 
Columbus State University (Ga.); 
Concordia College (N.Y.); 
Concordia College at Moorhead (Minn.); 
Concordia University (Ill.); 
Connecticut College (Conn.); 
Coppin State University (Md.); 
Cornell College (Iowa); 
Cornell University-Endowed Colleges (N.Y.); 
Creighton University (Neb.); 
CUNY City College (N.Y.); 
CUNY College of Staten Island (N.Y.); 
CUNY Hunter College (N.Y.); 
CUNY John Jay College Criminal Justice (N.Y.); 
CUNY Lehman College (N.Y.); 
CUNY Medgar Evers College (N.Y.); 
CUNY Queens College (N.Y.); 
CUNY York College (N.Y.); 
Curry College (Mass.); 
Daniel Webster College (N.H.); 
Dartmouth College (N.H.); 
Davidson College (N.C.); 
Defiance College (Ohio); 
Delaware State University (Del.); 
Delaware Valley College (Pa.); 
Delta State University (Miss.); 
Denison University (Ohio); 
Depaul University (Ill.); 
Depauw University (Ind.); 
Desales University (Pa.); 
Dickinson College (Pa.); 
Dowling College (N.Y.); 
Drake University (Iowa); 
Drew University (N.J.); 
Drexel University (Pa.); 
Duke University (N.C.); 
Duquesne University (Pa.); 
Earlham College (Ind.); 
East Carolina University (N.C.); 
East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
East Tennessee State University (Tenn.); 
Eastern Connecticut State University (Conn.); 
Eastern Illinois University (Ill.); 
Eastern Kentucky University (Ky.); 
Eastern Mennonite University (Va.); 
Eastern Michigan University (Mich.); 
Eastern Nazarene College (Mass.); 
Eastern New Mexico University-Main Campus (N.M.); 
Eastern Washington University (Wash.); 
Eckerd College (Fla.); 
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Elizabeth City State University (N.C.); 
Elizabethtown College (Pa.); 
Elmhurst College (Ill.); 
Elmira College (N.Y.); 
Emerson College (Mass.); 
Emmanuel College (Mass.); 
Emory and Henry College (Va.); 
Emory University (Ga.); 
Fairfield University (Conn.); 
Fairleigh Dickinson University-College at Florham (N.J.); 
Fairleigh Dickinson University-Metropolitan Campus (N.J.); 
Fayetteville State University (N.C.) 
Ferris State University (Mich.); 
Ferrum College (Va.); 
Fisk University (Tenn.); 
Fitchburg State College (Mass.); 
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (Fla.); 
Florida Atlantic University-Boca Raton (Fla.); 
Florida Institute of Technology-Melbourne (Fla.); 
Florida International University (Fla.); 
Florida Southern College (Fla.); 
Florida State University (Fla.); 
Fontbonne University (Mo.); 
Fordham University (N.Y.); 
Fort Valley State University (Ga.); 
Framingham State College (Mass.); 
Franklin and Marshall College (Pa.); 
Franklin Pierce College (N.H.); 
Frostburg State University (Md.); 
Furman University (S.C.); 
Gallaudet University (D.C.); 
Gannon University (Pa.); 
George Mason University (Va.); 
George Washington University (D.C.); 
Georgetown University (D.C.); 
Georgia College and State University (Ga.); 
Georgia Institute of Technology-Main Campus (Ga.); 
Georgia Southern University (Ga.); 
Georgia State University (Ga.); 
Gettysburg College (Pa.); 
Gonzaga University (Wash.); 
Goucher College (Md.); 
Grambling State University (La.); 
Grand Valley State University (Mich.); 
Greensboro College (N.C.); 
Grinnell College (Iowa); 
Grove City College (Pa.); 
Guilford College (N.C.); 
Gustavus Adolphus College (Minn.); 
Hamilton College (N.Y.); 
Hamline University (Minn.); 
Hampden-Sydney College (Va.); 
Hampton University (Va.); 
Hartwick College (N.Y.); 
Harvard University (Mass.); 
Haverford College (Pa.); 
Heidelberg College (Ohio); 
Hiram College (Ohio); 
Hobart William Smith Colleges (N.Y.); 
Hofstra University (N.Y.); 
Hollins University (Va.); 
Hood College (Md.); 
Hope College (Mich.); 
Howard University (D.C.); 
Humboldt State University (Calif.); 
Idaho State University (Idaho); 
Illinois College (Ill.); 
Illinois State University (Ill.); 
Illinois Wesleyan University (Ill.); 
Immaculata University (Pa.); 
Indiana State University (Ind.); 
Indiana University of Pennsylvania-Main Campus (Pa.); 
Indiana University-Bloomington (Ind.); 
Indiana University-Purdue University-Fort Wayne (Ind.); 
Iona College (N.Y.); 
Iowa State University (Iowa); 
Ithaca College (N.Y.); 
Jackson State University (Miss.); 
Jacksonville State University (Ala.); 
Jacksonville University (Fla.); 
James Madison University (Va.); 
John Carroll University (Ohio); 
Johns Hopkins University (Md.); 
Johnson C Smith University (N.C.); 
Juniata College (Pa.) 
Kalamazoo College (Mich.); 
Kansas State University (Kan.); 
Kean University (N.J.); 
Keene State College (N.H.); 
Kent State University-Main Campus (Ohio); 
Kentucky State University (Ky.); 
Kenyon College (Ohio); 
Keuka College (N.Y.); 
Kings College (Pa.); 
Knox College (Ill.); 
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
La Salle University (Pa.); 
Lafayette College (Pa.); 
Lake Forest College (Ill.); 
Lake Superior State University (Mich.); 
Lamar University (Tex.); 
Lander University (S.C.); 
Lawrence University (Wis.); 
Le Moyne College (N.Y.); 
Le Moyne-Owen College (Tenn.); 
Lebanon Valley College (Pa.); 
Lewis University (Ill.); 
Liberty University (Va.); 
Lincoln Memorial University (Tenn.); 
Lincoln University (Mo.); 
Lincoln University (Pa.); 
Livingstone College (N.C.); 
Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Long Island University-Brooklyn Campus (N.Y.); 
Long Island University-C W Post Campus (N.Y.); 
Loras College (Iowa); 
Louisiana State Univ & Ag & Mech & Hebert Laws Ctr (La.); 
Louisiana Tech University (La.); 
Loyola College in Maryland (Md.); 
Loyola Marymount University (Calif.); 
Loyola University Chicago (Ill.); 
Luther College (Iowa); 
Lycoming College (Pa.); 
Lynchburg College (Va.); 
Macalester College (Minn.); 
MacMurray College (Ill.); 
Manhattan College (N.Y.); 
Manhattanville College (N.Y.); 
Mansfield University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Marietta College (Ohio); 
Marist College (N.Y.); 
Marquette University (Wis.); 
Marshall University (W.Va.); 
Mary Baldwin College (Va.); 
Marymount University (Va.); 
Maryville College (Tenn.); 
Maryville University of Saint Louis (Mo.); 
Marywood University (Pa.); 
Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts (Mass.); 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Mass.); 
Massachusetts Maritime Academy (Mass.); 
McDaniel College (Md.); 
McNeese State University (La.); 
Mercer University (Ga.); 
Mercy College-Main Campus (N.Y.); 
Mercyhurst College (Pa.); 
Merrimack College (Mass.); 
Messiah College (Pa.); 
Methodist College (N.C.); 
Metropolitan State College of Denver (Colo.); 
Miami University-Oxford (Ohio); 
Michigan State University (Mich.); 
Michigan Technological University (Mich.); 
Middle Tennessee State University (Tenn.); 
Middlebury College (Vt.); 
Miles College (Ala.); 
Millersville University of Pennsylvania (Pa.) 
Millikin University (Ill.); 
Millsaps College (Miss.); 
Minnesota State University-Mankato (Minn.); 
Mississippi College (Miss.); 
Mississippi State University (Miss.); 
Mississippi Valley State University (Miss.); 
Missouri Southern State University (Mo.); 
Molloy College (N.Y.); 
Monmouth College (Ill.); 
Monmouth University (N.J.); 
Montana State University-Billings (Mont.); 
Montana State University-Bozeman (Mont.); 
Montclair State University (N.J.); 
Morehead State University (Ky.); 
Morehouse College (Ga.); 
Morgan State University (Md.); 
Mount Holyoke College (Mass.); 
Mount Saint Mary College (N.Y.); 
Mount St Mary's University (Md.); 
Mount Union College (Ohio); 
Muhlenberg College (Pa.); 
Murray State University (Ky.); 
Muskingum College (Ohio); 
Nazareth College of Rochester (N.Y.); 
New England College (N.H.); 
New Jersey City University (N.J.); 
New Jersey Institute of Technology (N.J.); 
New Mexico State University-Main Campus (N.M.); 
New York University (N.Y.); 
Niagara University (N.Y.); 
Nicholls State University (La.); 
Nichols College (Mass.); 
Norfolk State University (Va.); 
North Carolina A & T State University (N.C.); 
North Carolina Central University (N.C.); 
North Carolina State University at Raleigh (N.C.); 
North Carolina Wesleyan College (N.C.); 
North Central College (Ill.); 
North Dakota State University-Main Campus (N.D.); 
North Park University (Ill.); 
Northeastern University (Mass.); 
Northern Arizona University (Ariz.); 
Northern Illinois University (Ill.); 
Northern Kentucky University (Ky.); 
Northern Michigan University (Mich.); 
Northwestern State University of Louisiana (La.); 
Northwestern University (Ill.); 
Norwich University (Vt.); 
Oberlin College (Ohio); 
Occidental College (Calif.); 
Oglethorpe University (Ga.); 
Ohio Northern University (Ohio); 
Ohio State University-Main Campus (Ohio); 
Ohio University-Main Campus (Ohio); 
Ohio Wesleyan University (Ohio); 
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus (Okla.); 
Old Dominion University (Va.); 
Olivet College (Mich.); 
Oregon State University (Ore.); 
Otterbein College (Ohio); 
Pace University-New York (N.Y.); 
Paine College (Ga.); 
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus (Pa.); 
Pennsylvania State Univ-Penn St Erie-Behrend Coll (Pa.); 
Pepperdine University (Calif.); 
Philadelphia University (Pa.); 
Pine Manor College (Mass.); 
Pittsburg State University (Kan.); 
Pitzer College (Calif.); 
Plymouth State University (N.H.); 
Polytechnic University (N.Y.) 
Portland State University (Ore.); 
Princeton University (N.J.); 
Principia College (Ill.); 
Providence College (R.I.); 
Purdue University-Main Campus (Ind.); 
Queens University of Charlotte (N.C.); 
Quinnipiac University (Conn.); 
Radford University (Va.); 
Ramapo College of New Jersey (N.J.); 
Randolph-Macon College (Va.); 
Regis College (Mass.); 
Regis University (Colo.); 
Rhode Island College (R.I.); 
Rhodes College (Tenn.); 
Rice University (Tex.); 
Rider University (N.J.); 
Ripon College (Wis.); 
Roanoke College (Va.); 
Robert Morris University (Pa.); 
Rochester Institute of Technology (N.Y.); 
Rockford College (Ill.); 
Rollins College (Fla.); 
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology (Ind.); 
Rosemont College (Pa.); 
Rowan University (N.J.); 
Rust College (Miss.); 
Rutgers University-Camden (N.J.); 
Rutgers University-New Brunswick (N.J.); 
Rutgers University-Newark (N.J.); 
Saginaw Valley State University (Mich.); 
Saint Anselm College (N.H.); 
Saint Augustines College (N.C.); 
Saint Bonaventure University (N.Y.); 
Saint Cloud State University (Minn.); 
Saint Francis University (Pa.); 
Saint John Fisher College (N.Y.); 
Saint Johns University (Minn.); 
Saint Josephs College (Ind.); 
Saint Josephs University (Pa.); 
Saint Leo University (Fla.); 
Saint Louis University-Main Campus (Mo.); 
Saint Mary's College (Ind.); 
Saint Marys College of California (Calif.); 
Saint Mary's University of Minnesota (Minn.); 
Saint Michaels College (Vt.); 
Saint Norbert College (Wis.); 
Saint Pauls College (Va.); 
Saint Peters College (N.J.); 
Salem State College (Mass.); 
Salisbury University (Md.); 
Salve Regina University (R.I.); 
Sam Houston State University (Tex.); 
Samford University (Ala.); 
San Diego State University (Calif.); 
San Francisco State University (Calif.); 
San Jose State University (Calif.); 
Santa Clara University (Calif.); 
Savannah State University (Ga.); 
Seattle Pacific University (Wash.); 
Seton Hall University (N.J.); 
Sewanee: The University of the South (Tenn.); 
Shaw University (N.C.); 
Shenandoah University (Va.); 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Siena College (N.Y.); 
Simmons College (Mass.); 
Simpson College (Iowa); 
Skidmore College (N.Y.); 
Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Smith College (Mass.); 
Sonoma State University (Calif.); 
South Carolina State University (S.C.); 
South Dakota State University (S.D.); 
Southeast Missouri State University (Mo.); 
Southeastern Louisiana University (La.) 
Southern Connecticut State University (Conn.); 
Southern Illinois University Carbondale (Ill.); 
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (Ill.); 
Southern Methodist University (Tex.); 
Southern New Hampshire University (N.H.); 
Southern University and A & M College (La.); 
Southern Utah University (Utah); 
Southwest Baptist University (Mo.); 
Southwest Missouri State University (Mo.); 
Southwest Missouri State University (Mo.); 
Springfield College (Mass.); 
St Francis College (N.Y.); 
St John's University-New York (N.Y.); 
St Lawrence University (N.Y.); 
St Mary's College of Maryland (Md.); 
State University of West Georgia (Ga.); 
Stephen F Austin State University (Tex.); 
Stetson University (Fla.); 
Stevens Institute of Technology (N.J.); 
Stonehill College (Mass.); 
Suffolk University (Mass.); 
SUNY at Albany (N.Y.); 
SUNY at Binghamton (N.Y.); 
SUNY at Buffalo (N.Y.); 
SUNY at Stony Brook (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Brockport (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Buffalo (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Cortland (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Fredonia (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Geneseo (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at New Paltz (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Old Westbury (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Oneonta (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Oswego (N.Y.); 
SUNY College at Plattsburgh (N.Y.); 
SUNY Institute of Technology at Utica-Rome (N.Y.); 
SUNY Maritime College (N.Y.); 
SUNY-Potsdam (N.Y.); 
Susquehanna University (Pa.); 
Swarthmore College (Pa.); 
Sweet Briar College (Va.); 
Syracuse University (N.Y.); 
Temple University (Pa.); 
Tennessee State University (Tenn.); 
Tennessee Technological University (Tenn.); 
Texas A & M University (Tex.); 
Texas A & M University-Commerce (Tex.); 
Texas A & M University-Kingsville (Tex.); 
Texas Christian University (Tex.); 
Texas State University-San Marcos (Tex.); 
Texas Tech University (Tex.); 
Texas Woman's University (Tex.); 
The College of New Jersey (N.J.); 
The College of New Rochelle (N.Y.); 
The College of Saint Rose (N.Y.); 
The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey (N.J.); 
The University of Alabama (Ala.); 
The University of Montana-Missoula (Mont.); 
The University of Tampa (Fla.); 
The University of Tennessee (Tenn.); 
The University of Tennessee-Chattanooga (Tenn.); 
The University of Tennessee-Martin (Tenn.); 
The University of Texas at Arlington (Tex.); 
The University of Texas at Austin (Tex.); 
The University of Texas at El Paso (Tex.); 
The University of Texas at San Antonio (Tex.); 
The University of Texas-Pan American (Tex.); 
Thiel College (Pa.); 
Thomas More College (Ky.); 
Towson University (Md.) 
Trinity College (Conn.); 
Trinity University (Tex.); 
Troy State University-Main Campus (Ala.); 
Truman State University (Mo.); 
Tufts University (Mass.); 
Tuskegee University (Ala.); 
Union College (N.Y.); 
United States Air Force Academy (Colo.); 
United States Coast Guard Academy (Conn.); 
United States Military Academy (N.Y.); 
United States Naval Academy (Md.); 
University of Akron Main Campus (Ohio); 
University of Alabama at Birmingham (Ala.); 
University of Alabama in Huntsville (Ala.); 
University of Alaska Anchorage (Alaska); 
University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska); 
University of Arizona (Ariz.); 
University of Arkansas at Little Rock (Ark.); 
University of Arkansas Main Campus (Ark.); 
University of Bridgeport (Conn.); 
University of California-Davis (Calif.); 
University of California-Irvine (Calif.); 
University of California-Riverside (Calif.); 
University of California-San Diego (Calif.); 
University of California-Santa Barbara (Calif.); 
University of Central Florida (Fla.); 
University of Central Oklahoma (Okla.); 
University of Chicago (Ill.); 
University of Cincinnati-Main Campus (Ohio); 
University of Colorado at Boulder (Colo.); 
University of Dayton (Ohio); 
University of Delaware (Del.); 
University of Denver (Colo.); 
University of Detroit Mercy (Mich.); 
University of Dubuque (Iowa); 
University of Evansville (Ind.); 
University of Florida (Fla.); 
University of Georgia (Ga.); 
University of Hartford (Conn.); 
University of Hawaii at Manoa (Hawaii); 
University of Idaho (Idaho); 
University of Illinois at Chicago (Ill.); 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Ill.); 
University of Indianapolis (Ind.); 
University of Iowa (Iowa); 
University of Kansas Main Campus (Kan.); 
University of Kentucky (Ky.); 
University of La Verne (Calif.); 
University of Louisiana at Lafayette (La.); 
University of Louisiana at Monroe (La.); 
University of Louisville (Ky.); 
University of Maine (Maine); 
University of Mary Washington (Va.); 
University of Maryland-Baltimore County (Md.); 
University of Maryland-College Park (Md.); 
University of Maryland-Eastern Shore (Md.); 
University of Massachusetts-Amherst (Mass.); 
University of Massachusetts-Boston (Mass.); 
University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth (Mass.); 
University of Massachusetts-Lowell (Mass.); 
University of Memphis (Tenn.); 
University of Miami (Fla.); 
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor (Mich.); 
University of Minneasota-Twin Cities (Minn.); 
University of Mississippi Main Campus (Miss.); 
University of Missouri-Columbia (Mo.); 
University of Missouri-Kansas City (Mo.); 
University of Missouri-Rolla (Mo.); 
University of Missouri-St Louis (Mo.); 
University of Nebraska at Kearney (Neb.); 
University of Nebraska at Lincoln (Neb.) 
University of Nebraska at Omaha (Neb.); 
University of Nevada-Las Vegas (Nev.); 
University of Nevada-Reno (Nev.); 
University of New Hampshire-Main Campus (N.H.); 
University of New Haven (Conn.); 
University of New Mexico-Main Campus (N.M.); 
University of New Orleans (La.); 
University of North Alabama (Ala.); 
University of North Carolina at Asheville (N.C.); 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (N.C.); 
University of North Carolina at Charlotte (N.C.); 
University of North Carolina at Greensboro (N.C.); 
University of North Carolina at Pembroke (N.C.); 
University of North Carolina-Wilmington (N.C.); 
University of North Dakota-Main Campus (N.D.); 
University of North Texas (Tex.); 
University of Northern Colorado (Colo.); 
University of Northern Iowa (Iowa); 
University of Notre Dame (Ind.); 
University of Oklahoma Norman Campus (Okla.); 
University of Oregon (Ore.); 
University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
University of Pittsburgh-Main Campus (Pa.); 
University of Portland (Ore.); 
University of Redlands (Calif.); 
University of Rhode Island (R.I.); 
University of Richmond (Va.); 
University of Rochester (N.Y.); 
University of San Diego (Calif.); 
University of San Francisco (Calif.); 
University of Scranton (Pa.); 
University of South Alabama (Ala.); 
University of South Carolina Upstate (S.C.); 
University of South Carolina-Aiken (S.C.); 
University of South Carolina-Columbia (S.C.); 
University of South Dakota (S.D.); 
University of South Florida (Fla.); 
University of Southern California (Calif.); 
University of Southern Indiana (Ind.); 
University of Southern Maine (Maine); 
University of Southern Mississippi (Miss.); 
University of St Thomas (Minn.); 
University of the District of Columbia (D.C.); 
University of the Pacific (Calif.); 
University of Toledo (Ohio); 
University of Tulsa (Okla.); 
University of Utah (Utah); 
University of Vermont and State Agricultural Coll (Vt.); 
University of Virginia-Main Campus (Va.); 
University of Washington-Seattle Campus (Wash.); 
University of West Alabama (Ala.); 
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Madison (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Stout (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Superior (Wis.); 
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater (Wis.); 
University of Wyoming (Wyo.); 
Upper Iowa University (Iowa); 
Ursinus College (Pa.); 
Utah State University (Utah); 
Utica College (N.Y.); 
Valdosta State University (Ga.); 
Valparaiso University (Ind.); 
Vanderbilt University (Tenn.); 
Vassar College (N.Y.); 
Villanova University (Pa.) 
Virginia Commonwealth University (Va.); 
Virginia Military Institute (Va.); 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ (Va.); 
Virginia State University (Va.); 
Virginia Union University (Va.); 
Virginia Wesleyan College (Va.); 
Wabash College (Ind.); 
Wagner College (N.Y.); 
Wake Forest University (N.C.); 
Wartburg College (Iowa); 
Washburn University (Kan.); 
Washington & Jefferson College (Pa.); 
Washington and Lee University (Va.); 
Washington College (Md.); 
Washington State University (Wash.); 
Washington University in St Louis (Mo.); 
Wayne State College (Neb.); 
Wayne State University (Mich.); 
Waynesburg College (Pa.); 
Weber State University (Utah); 
Webster University (Mo.); 
Wellesley College (Mass.); 
Wells College (N.Y.); 
Wentworth Institute of Technology (Mass.); 
Wesley College (Del.); 
Wesleyan University (Conn.); 
West Chester University of Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
West Texas A & M University (Tex.); 
West Virginia University (W.Va.); 
Western Carolina University (N.C.); 
Western Connecticut State University (Conn.); 
Western Illinois University (Ill.); 
Western Kentucky University (Ky.); 
Western Michigan University (Mich.); 
Western New England College (Mass.); 
Westfield State College (Mass.); 
Wheaton College (Ill.); 
Wheaton College (Mass.); 
Whittier College (Calif.); 
Wichita State University (Kan.); 
Widener University-Main Campus (Pa.); 
Wilkes University (Pa.); 
William Paterson University of New Jersey (N.J.); 
Williams College (Mass.); 
Wilmington College (Del.); 
Winston-Salem State University (N.C.); 
Winthrop University (S.C.); 
Wittenberg University (Ohio); 
Wofford College (S.C.); 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Mass.); 
Worcester State College (Mass.); 
Wright State University-Main Campus (Ohio); 
Xavier University (Ohio); 
Yale University (Conn.); 
Yeshiva University (N.Y.); 
York College Pennsylvania (Pa.); 
Youngstown State University (Ohio). 

Sources: NCAA and Department of Education. 

Notes: For some schools, "A & M" no longer signifies "Agricultural and 
Mechanical" but is simply part of the school name. 

School names are listed as they were reported to the Department of 
Education through the IPEDS system. Thus, some names may differ from 
how they are listed in the NCAA membership directories. 

[End of table] 

[End of section] 

Appendix V: Comments from the Department of Education: 

United States Department Of Education: 
Office For Civil Rights: 
Assistant Secretary: 

May 16 2007: 

Mr. George A. Scott:
Director: 
Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues: 
U.S. Government Accountability Office: 
Washington D.C. 20548: 

Dear Mr. Scott: 

Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the draft of GAO's report 
entitled "Intercollegiate Athletics: Recent Trends in Teams and 
Participants in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports" GAO- 
07-535 (draft report), which you provided for review, by letter to 
Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings dated April 30, 2007. I am 
pleased to respond on behalf of the Department of Education 
(Department). 

The draft report assesses two issues: (1) trends in the numbers of 
men's and women's intercollegiate sports teams at four-year colleges 
from the 1991-1992 through 2004-2005 school years, and (2) trends in 
the numbers of male and female participants in intercollegiate sports 
at four-year colleges from the 1991-1992 through 2004-2005 school 
years. Although the focus of the draft report is not Title IX of the 
Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX), 20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq., we 
recommend that GAO include a footnote in the final report clarifying 
that the measures utilized in the report are distinct from the 
Department's standards for assessing compliance with the Title IX 
athletics requirements. 

First, the draft report concludes that, while the numbers of both men's 
and women's intercollegiate sports teams increased during the relevant 
time period, women's teams showed larger increases than men's teams. 
The Department does not measure whether equal athletic opportunities 
are provided to men and women based on the comparative number of male 
and female teams. The focus of Title IX compliance is participation 
opportunities available to male and female students, not the number of 
athletic teams in which those opportunities are provided.[Footnote ] 

Second, the draft report compares the rate of increase in athletic 
participation opportunities by sex to the rate of increase in 
enrollment for each sex. As one of three options for ensuring equal 
athletic opportunity, the Department examines whether the percent of 
current male and female athletes is substantially proportionate to the 
percent of male and female students currently enrolled at the school, 
not the rate of increase or decrease in participation or enrollment for 
each sex. The draft report should emphasize that, despite increases in 
the rate of participation in athletics by women compared to their rate 
of college enrollment, men had greater overall athletic participation 
levels than women, both in absolute terms and relative to their 
enrollment during the entire time period assessed. 

I have enclosed with this letter a list of technical comments and 
corrections. Thank you again for the opportunity to comment on the 
draft of your report. I hope these comments are helpful. We remain 
available to assist you and your staff in clarifying any issues in the 
draft report. 

Sincerely, 

Signed by: 

Stephanie Monroe: 
Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights: 

cc: Melissa Emrey-Arras: 
Assistant Director: 
Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues: 

[End of section] 

Appendix VI: GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments: 

GAO Contact: 

George A. Scott, Director, (202) 512-7215, ScottG@gao.gov. 

Staff Acknowledgments: 

Melissa Emrey-Arras, Assistant Director, and Jeffrey W. Weinstein, 
Analyst-in-Charge, managed this assignment. Other staff members who 
made key contributions throughout the assignment include Cornelia 
Ashby, Jeff Appel, Claudine Pauselli, Ann-Marie Udale, Rachael 
Valliere, and Carla Craddock. Luann Moy assisted with methodology and 
data reliability testing. Sheila McCoy provided legal assistance. Lisa 
Mirel, Alice Feldesman, Karen Burke, and Avy Ashery provided assistance 
with graphics and layout. 

[End of section] 

Related GAO Products: 

Intercollegiate Athletics: Trends by Sport in National Collegiate 
Athletic Association Sports. GAO-07-744SP. Washington, D.C.: July 12, 
2007. 

Intercollegiate Athletics: Four-Year Colleges' Experiences Adding and 
Discontinuing Teams. GAO-01-297. Washington, D.C.: March 8, 2001. 

Gender Equity: Men's and Women's Participation in Higher Education. GAO-
01-128. Washington, D.C.: December 15, 2000. 

Intercollegiate Athletics: Comparison of Selected Characteristics for 
Men's and Women's Programs. HEHS-99-3R. Washington, D.C.: June 18, 
1999. 

Intercollegiate Athletics: Status of Efforts to Promote Gender Equity. 
HEHS-97-10. Washington, D.C.: October 25, 1996. 

Intercollegiate Athletics: Compensation Varies for Selected Personnel 
in Athletic Departments. HRD-92-121. Washington, D.C.: August 19, 1992. 

FOOTNOTES 

[1] "Significantly" designates 5 percentage points or greater. 

[2] We used NCAA data because they were the only viable option for 
analyzing annual athletic trends for teams and participants over an 
extended period. 

[3] These schools were not members of the National Association of 
Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA). 

[4] Schools in our study varied in the number of NCAA sports they 
sponsored. 

[5] GAO, Intercollegiate Athletics: Trends by Sport in National 
Collegiate Athletic Association Sports, GAO-07-744SP (Washington, D.C.: 
June 2007). 

[6] This report measures trends in teams and participants in 
intercollegiate athletics. In contrast, the Department of Education has 
separate standards it uses to determine whether institutions of higher 
education provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes 
pursuant to Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 
ßß1681-88). This report does not address--and is not intended to 
address--compliance with federal laws or regulations. 

[7] The NAIA is the second-largest national intercollegiate association 
in the United States. We eliminated colleges and universities that were 
joint members of the NCAA and NAIA to reduce the possibility of schools 
not having reported complete information to the NCAA. 

[8] Officials from Education note that the agency did not complete 
reliability testing of data for the 1999-2000 school year because 
reporting rates were particularly low for this year. Please see the 
associated discussion in "Department of Education Enrollment Data" 
below. 

[9] For more information, see GAO, Intercollegiate Athletics: Four-Year 
Colleges' Experiences Adding and Discontinuing Teams, GAO-01-297 
(Washington, D.C.: March 8, 2001). 

[10] The EADA generally requires institutions of higher education to 
annually collect and make publicly available team, participant, and 
other athletic data for the immediately preceding school year starting 
in October 1996 for the 1995-1996 school year. However, the EADA does 
not require institutions to retain those data for subsequent years. 

[11] For example, the definition of "reporting year" has varied from 
school to school, with some schools reporting over an 8 month period, 
and other schools reporting over different 12 month periods. Education 
noted that the very first year of data collection (2000-2001) was 
particularly problematic because submissions varied dramatically from 
school to school and for other reasons. 

[12] For school years 1991-1992 through 1994-1995 and 1999-2000 through 
2004-2005, the report uses annual NCAA membership reports provided by 
schools. For school years 1995-1996 through 1998-1999, the report is 
based on athletic records collected by schools to meet the requirements 
of the EADA. 

[13] The Department's Title IX implementing regulation, published in 
1975, requires recipients to provide equal athletic opportunity for 
members of both sexes and to effectively accommodate the interests and 
abilities of their male and female students to participate in 
intercollegiate athletics. See 34 C.F.R. ß 106.41(c). In the 
Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Interpretation published in the 
Federal Register in 1979, the Department established a three-part test 
that OCR applies, in part, to determine whether an institution is 
effectively accommodating student athletic interests and abilities. An 
institution is in compliance with the three-part test if it has met any 
one of the following three parts of the test: (1) the percent of male 
and female athletes is substantially proportionate to the percent of 
male and female students enrolled at the school; or (2) where the 
members of one sex have been and are underrepresented among 
intercollegiate athletes, whether the institution can show a history 
and continuing practice of program expansion which is demonstrably 
responsive to the developing interests and abilities of the members of 
that sex; or (3) where the members of one sex are underrepresented 
among intercollegiate athletes, whether it can be demonstrated that the 
interests and abilities of the members of the underrepresented sex have 
been fully and effectively accommodated by the present program. See 44 
Fed. Reg. 71, 413 (1979). 

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