This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-07-725T 
entitled 'Smithsonian Institution: Funding for Real Property Needs 
Remains a Challenge' which was released on April 11, 2007. 

This text file was formatted by the U.S. Government Accountability 
Office (GAO) to be accessible to users with visual impairments, as part 
of a longer term project to improve GAO products' accessibility. Every 
attempt has been made to maintain the structural and data integrity of 
the original printed product. Accessibility features, such as text 
descriptions of tables, consecutively numbered footnotes placed at the 
end of the file, and the text of agency comment letters, are provided 
but may not exactly duplicate the presentation or format of the printed 
version. The portable document format (PDF) file is an exact electronic 
replica of the printed version. We welcome your feedback. Please E-mail 
your comments regarding the contents or accessibility features of this 
document to Webmaster@gao.gov. 

This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright 
protection in the United States. It may be reproduced and distributed 
in its entirety without further permission from GAO. Because this work 
may contain copyrighted images or other material, permission from the 
copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this 
material separately. 

Testimony: 

Before the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration: 

United States Government Accountability Office: 

GAO: 

For Release on Delivery Expected at 10:00 a.m. EDT: 

Wednesday, April 11, 2007: 

Smithsonian Institution: 

Funding for Real Property Needs Remains a Challenge: 

Statement of Mark L. Goldstein, Director: 
Physical Infrastructure Issues: 

GAO-07-725T: 

GAO Highlights: 

Highlights of GAO-07-725T, a testimony to the Senate Committee on Rules 
and Administration 

Why GAO Did This Study: 

The Smithsonian Institution (Smithsonian) is the world’s largest museum 
complex and research organization. The age of the Smithsonian’s 
structures, past inattention to maintenance needs, and high visitation 
levels have left its facilities in need of revitalization and repair. 

This testimony discusses our prior work on some effects of the 
condition of the Smithsonian’s facilities and whether the Smithsonian 
has taken steps to maximize facility resources. It also discusses the 
current estimated costs of the Smithsonian’s needed facilities 
projects. In addition, it describes preliminary results of GAO’s 
ongoing work on the extent to which the Smithsonian developed and 
implemented strategies to fund these projects, as GAO recommended in 
prior work. 

The work for this testimony is based on GAO’s 2005 report, Smithsonian 
Institution: Facilities Management Reorganization Is Progressing, but 
Funding Remains a Challenge; GAO’s review of Smithsonian documents and 
other pertinent information; and interviews with Smithsonian officials. 

What GAO Found: 

In 2005, GAO reported that facilities-related problems at the 
Smithsonian had resulted in a few building closures and posed a serious 
long-term threat to the collections. For example, the 1881 Arts and 
Industries Building on the National Mall was closed to the public in 
2004 for an indefinite period over concern about its deteriorating roof 
structure. Currently, this building remains closed. GAO also found that 
the Smithsonian had taken steps to maximize the effectiveness of its 
existing resources for facilities. 

Preliminary results of GAO’s ongoing work indicate that as of March 30, 
2007, the Smithsonian estimated it would need about $2.5 billion for 
its revitalization, construction, and maintenance projects from fiscal 
year 2005 through fiscal year 2013, up from an estimate of $2.3 billion 
in 2005. In 2005, GAO recommended that the Smithsonian develop and 
implement a strategic funding plan to address its facilities needs. 

The Smithsonian Board of Regents—the Smithsonian’s governing body—has 
taken some steps to address GAO’s recommendation regarding a strategic 
funding plan. The board created an ad-hoc committee, which, after 
reviewing nine options, such as establishing a special exhibition fee, 
decided to request an additional $100 million annually in federal funds 
for facilities for the next 10 years, for a total of an additional $1 
billion. The President’s fiscal year 2008 budget proposal, however, 
proposes an increase of about $44 million over the Smithsonian’s fiscal 
year 2007 appropriation. It is not clear how much of this proposed 
increase would be used to support facilities, and how Congress will 
respond to the President’s budget request. Absent significant changes 
in the Smithsonian’s funding strategy or significant increases in 
funding from Congress, the Smithsonian faces greater risk to its 
facilities and collections over time. 

GAO is continuing to evaluate the Smithsonian’s efforts to 
strategically manage, fund, and secure its real property. We expect to 
publish a report on these issues later this year. 

Figure: Arts and Industries Building, 1977(left) and February 
2005(right): 

[see PDF for Image] 

Source: Smithsonian Institution. 

[End of figure] 

[Hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-07-725T]. 

To view the full product, including the scope and methodology, click on 
the link above. For more information, contact Mark L. Goldstein at 
(202) 512-2834, goldsteinm@gao.gov. 

[End of section] 

Madam Chairman and Members of the Committee: 

Thank you for the opportunity to testify before you today on our work 
regarding the Smithsonian Institution's (Smithsonian) facilities 
management and funding challenges. Since its founding in 1846, the 
Smithsonian, which is funded through its own private trust fund assets 
and its federal appropriation, has evolved into the world's largest 
museum complex and research organization, with more than 660 owned and 
leased buildings and other structures, with an estimated replacement 
value of about $4.7 billion for owned space as of June 2004. The age of 
the Smithsonian's structures, past inattention to maintenance needs, 
and high visitation levels have left its facilities in need of 
revitalization and repair. Facilities problems include the structural 
deterioration of aging buildings; heating, cooling, and electrical 
systems that are well past their normal life expectancy; leaks from 
roofs and pipes that jeopardize the collections; inadequate exhibition 
and storage space; and maintenance levels that have not kept pace with 
the wear and tear from millions of visitors each year. In 2005, the 
Smithsonian estimated it would need about $2.3 billion through fiscal 
year 2013 for its identified revitalization, construction, and 
maintenance projects. 

In my statement today, I will be focusing on the results of our 2005 
study of the Smithsonian's facilities management and funding issues-- 
Smithsonian Institution: Facilities Management Reorganization Is 
Progressing, but Funding Remains a Challenge[Footnote 1]--as well as 
some preliminary results from an ongoing study we have undertaken of 
the Smithsonian's real property management at the request of this 
committee and the House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations, 
Subcommittee on Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. I will be 
discussing our prior work on some effects of the condition of the 
Smithsonian's facilities and whether the Smithsonian has taken steps to 
maximize the effects of its resources for facilities; current estimated 
costs of the Smithsonian's revitalization, construction, and 
maintenance projects; and some preliminary results of our ongoing work 
on the extent to which the Smithsonian developed and implemented 
strategies to fund its revitalization, construction, and maintenance 
needs, as we recommended in prior work. 

In summary: 

* In our 2005 report, we found that facilities-related problems at the 
Smithsonian had resulted in a few building closures and access 
restrictions and posed a serious long-term threat to the collections. 
For example, the 1881 Arts and Industries Building on the National Mall 
was closed to the public in 2004 for an indefinite period over concern 
about its deteriorating roof structure and pending the repair or 
replacement of its weakened roof panels and aging systems such as 
heating and cooling. Currently, this building remains closed. In 
addition, we found that these problems were indicative of a broad 
decline in the Smithsonian's aging facilities and that in some cases, 
items in the Smithsonian's collections had been damaged by water. We 
also found that the Smithsonian had taken steps to maximize the 
effectiveness of its existing resources for facilities, such as 
adopting a variety of recognized industry best practices for managing 
facilities projects. 

* Preliminary results from our ongoing work show that as of March 30, 
2007, the Smithsonian estimates it will need about $2.5 billion for 
revitalization, construction, and maintenance projects identified from 
fiscal year 2005 through fiscal year 2013, an increase of about $200 
million from its 2005 estimate of about $2.3 billion for the same time 
period. Smithsonian officials stated that to update this estimate, they 
identified changes that had occurred to project cost figures used in 
the 2005 estimate and then subtracted from the new total the 
appropriations the Smithsonian had received for facilities 
revitalization, construction, and maintenance projects for fiscal years 
2005-2007. In our previous work, we recommended that the Smithsonian 
develop and implement a strategic funding plan to address its 
facilities needs. 

* Preliminary results also suggest that the Smithsonian has taken some 
steps to address our recommendation to develop and implement a 
strategic funding plan to address its facilities needs. In June 2005, 
the Smithsonian Board of Regents--the Smithsonian's governing body, 
which is comprised of both private citizens and members of all three 
branches of the federal government--established the ad-hoc Committee on 
Facilities Revitalization to explore options to address the about $2.3 
billion the Smithsonian estimated it needed for facilities 
revitalization, construction, and maintenance projects through fiscal 
year 2013. According to Smithsonian officials, after reviewing nine 
options, such as establishing a special exhibition fee, the ad-hoc 
committee decided in 2006 to request an additional $100 million 
annually in federal funds for facilities over its current appropriation 
for 10 years, starting in fiscal year 2008, to reach a total of an 
additional $1 billion. In September 2006, according to Smithsonian 
officials, several members of the Board of Regents and the Secretary of 
the Smithsonian met with the President of the United States to make 
this request. The President's fiscal year 2008 budget proposal, 
however, proposes an increase of about $44 million over the 
Smithsonian's fiscal year 2007 appropriation, and it is not clear how 
much of this increase would be used to support facilities. Some of 
these funds could be used to support research, collections, and 
exhibitions, among other things. Moreover, Congress may choose to 
modify the President's budget proposal when funds are appropriated for 
the fiscal year. 

* The Smithsonian's estimate for revitalization, construction, and 
maintenance needs has increased at an average of about $100 million a 
year over the past 2 years. Therefore, the Smithsonian's request for an 
additional $100 million a year may not actually reduce the 
Smithsonian's estimated revitalization, construction, and maintenance 
needs but only offset the increase in its estimate. Absent significant 
changes in the Smithsonian's funding strategy or significant increases 
in funding from Congress, the Smithsonian faces greater risk to its 
facilities and collections over time. 

* We are continuing to evaluate the Smithsonian's efforts to 
strategically manage, fund, and secure its real property. Our 
objectives include assessing (1) the extent to which the Smithsonian is 
strategically managing its real property portfolio, (2) the extent to 
which the Smithsonian has developed and implemented strategies to fund 
its revitalization, construction, and maintenance needs, and (3) the 
Smithsonian's security cost trends and challenges, including the extent 
to which the Smithsonian has followed key security practices to protect 
its assets. We are also examining how other similar institutions, such 
as other museums and university systems, strategically manage, fund, 
and secure their real property. We expect to report on these issues 
later this year. 

Past Work Showed that Smithsonian's Aging Facilities and Systems 
Threaten Collections: 

In our 2005 report, we found that facilities-related problems at the 
Smithsonian had resulted in a few building closures and access 
restrictions and some cases of damage to the collections. A few 
facilities had deteriorated to the point where access must be denied or 
limited. For example, the 1881 Arts and Industries Building on the 
National Mall was closed to the public in 2004 for an indefinite 
period, pending repair of its weakened roof panels, renovation of its 
interior (which had been damaged by water intrusion), and replacement 
of aging systems such as heating and cooling. Currently, this building 
remains closed. Other facilities also faced problems. We found that 
water leaks caused by deteriorated piping and roofing elements, along 
with humidity and temperature problems in buildings with aging systems, 
posed perhaps the most pervasive threats to artifacts in the museums 
and storage facilities. For example, leaks have damaged two historic 
aircraft at the National Air and Space Museum. Additionally, 
Smithsonian Archives officials told us that they had had to address 19 
"water emergencies" since June 2002. These problems were indicative of 
a broad decline in the Smithsonian's aging facilities and systems that 
posed a serious long-term threat to the collections. 

We also found that the Smithsonian had taken steps to maximize the 
effectiveness of its resources for facilities. These changes resulted 
from an internal review and a 2001 report by the National Academy of 
Public Administration, which recommended that the Smithsonian 
centralize its then highly decentralized approach to facilities 
management and budgeting in order to promote uniform policies and 
procedures, improve accountability, and avoid duplication. The 
Smithsonian created the Office of Facilities Engineering and Operations 
in 2003 to assume responsibility for all facilities-related programs 
and budgets. At the time of our 2005 review, this office was adopting a 
variety of recognized industry best practices for managing facilities 
projects, such as the use of benchmarking and metrics recommended by 
the Construction Industry Institute and leading capital decision-making 
practices.[Footnote 2] 

Preliminary Data Show that the Smithsonian's Estimated Costs for 
Facilities Projects through Fiscal Year 2013 Have Increased Since 2005: 

Preliminary results from our ongoing work show that as of March 30, 
2007, the Smithsonian estimates it will need about $2.5 billion for 
revitalization, construction, and maintenance projects identified from 
fiscal year 2005 through fiscal year 2013, an increase of about $200 
million from its 2005 estimate of about $2.3 billion for the same time 
period.[Footnote 3] Smithsonian officials stated that to update this 
estimate, they identified changes that had occurred to project cost 
figures used in the 2005 estimate and then subtracted from the new 
total the appropriations the Smithsonian had received for facilities 
revitalization, construction, and maintenance projects for fiscal years 
2005-2007. 

According to Smithsonian officials, this estimate includes only costs 
for which the Smithsonian expects to receive federal funds. Projects 
that have been or are expected to be funded through the Smithsonian's 
private trust funds were not included as part of the estimate, although 
the Smithsonian has used these trust funds to support some facilities 
projects. For example, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center was funded 
largely through trust funds. According to Smithsonian officials, 
maintenance and capital repair projects are not generally funded 
through trust funds. 

At the time of our 2005 report, Smithsonian officials told us that the 
Smithsonian's estimate of about $2.3 billion could increase for a 
variety of reasons. For example, the estimate was largely based on 
preliminary assessments. Moreover, in our previous report, we found 
that recent additions to the Smithsonian's building inventory--the 
National Museum of the American Indian and the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy 
Center--and the reopening of the revitalized Donald W. Reynolds Center 
for American Art and Portraiture[Footnote 4] on July 1, 2006 would add 
to the Smithsonian's annual maintenance costs. 

According to Smithsonian officials, the increase in its estimated 
revitalization, construction, and maintenance costs through fiscal year 
2013 from about $2.3 billion in our 2005 report to about $2.5 billion 
as of March 30, 2007, was due to several factors. For example, 
Smithsonian officials said that major increases had occurred in 
projects for the National Zoo and the National Museum of American 
History because the two facilities had recently had master plans 
developed that identified additional requirements.[Footnote 5] In 
addition, according to Smithsonian officials, estimates for anti- 
terrorism projects had increased due to adjustments for higher costs 
experienced and expected for security-related projects at the National 
Air and Space Museum. According to Smithsonian officials, the increase 
also reflects the effect of delaying corrective work in terms of 
additional damage and escalation in construction costs. 

According to Smithsonian officials, the Smithsonian's March 30, 2007, 
estimate of about $2.5 billion could also increase, as the about $2.3 
billion estimate was largely based on preliminary assessments, and 
therefore, as the Smithsonian completes more master plans, more items 
will be identified that need to be done. Moreover, this estimate does 
not include the estimated cost of constructing the National Museum of 
African American History and Culture, which was authorized by Congress 
and which the Smithsonian notionally estimates may cost about $500 
million, half of which is to be funded by Congressional appropriations. 

The Smithsonian's annual operating and capital program revenues come 
from its own private trust fund assets and its federal appropriation. 
According to Smithsonian officials, the Smithsonian's federal 
appropriation totaled nearly $635 million in fiscal year 2007, with 
about $99 million for facilities capital and about $536 million for 
salaries and expenses, of which the facilities maintenance 
appropriation, which falls within the salaries and expenses category, 
was about $51 million.[Footnote 6] In our previous work, we found that 
the facilities projects planned for the next 9 years exceeded funding 
at this level.[Footnote 7] As a result, we recommended that the 
Secretary of the Smithsonian establish a process for exploring options 
for funding its facilities needs and engaging the key stakeholders--the 
Smithsonian Board of Regents, the Administration, and Congress--in the 
development and implementation of a strategic funding plan to address 
the revitalization, construction, and maintenance projects identified 
by the Smithsonian. 

The Smithsonian Has Taken Some Steps to Address Our Recommendation to 
Develop and Implement a Funding Strategy: 

Smithsonian officials told us during our current review that the 
Smithsonian Board of Regents --the Smithsonian's governing body, which 
is comprised of both private citizens and members of all three branches 
of the federal government--has taken some steps to address our 
recommendation. In June 2005, the Smithsonian Board of Regents 
established the ad-hoc Committee on Facilities Revitalization to 
explore options to address the about $2.3 billion the Smithsonian 
estimated it needed for facilities revitalization, construction, and 
maintenance projects through fiscal year 2013. In September 2005, the 
ad-hoc committee held its first meeting, at which it reviewed nine 
funding options that had been prepared by Smithsonian management for 
addressing the about $2.3 billion in revitalization, construction, and 
maintenance projects through fiscal year 2013. These options included 
the following: 

* Federal income tax check off contribution, in which federal income 
tax returns would include a check-off box to allow taxpayers to 
designate some of their tax liability to a special fund for the 
Smithsonian's facilities. 

* Heritage treasures excise tax, in which an excise tax would be 
created, and possibly levied on local hotel bills, to generate funds 
for the Smithsonian's facilities. 

* National fundraising campaign, in which the Smithsonian would launch 
a national campaign to raise funds for its facilities. 

* General admission fee program, in which the Smithsonian would 
institute a general admission charge to raise funds for critical but 
unfunded requirements. 

* Special exhibition fee program, in which the Smithsonian would charge 
visitors to attend a select number of special exhibitions as a means to 
raise funds to meet critical but unfunded requirements. 

* Smithsonian treasures pass program, in which the Smithsonian would 
design a program through which visitors could purchase a Smithsonian 
treasures pass with special benefits, such as no-wait entry into 
facilities or behind-the-scenes tours, to raise funds to meet critical 
but unfunded requirements. 

* Facilities revitalization bond, in which the Smithsonian would borrow 
funds such as through a private or public debt bond for the 
Smithsonian's facilities. 

* Closing Smithsonian museums, in which the Smithsonian would 
permanently or temporarily close museums to the public in order to 
generate savings to help fund its facilities. 

* Increasing Smithsonian appropriations, in which the Board of Regents 
and other friends of the Smithsonian would approach the Administration 
about a dramatic appropriations increase to fund Smithsonian's 
facilities. 

According to Smithsonian officials, after considering these nine 
proposed options, the ad-hoc committee decided to request an increase 
in the Smithsonian's annual federal appropriations, specifically 
deciding to request an additional $100 million over the Smithsonian's 
current appropriation annually for 10 years, starting in fiscal year 
2008, to reach a total of an additional $1 billion. 

In September 2006, according to Smithsonian officials, several members 
of the Board of Regents and the Secretary of the Smithsonian met with 
the President of the United States to discuss the issue of increased 
federal funding for the Smithsonian's facilities. According to 
Smithsonian officials, during the meeting, among other things, the 
Regents discussed the problem of aging facilities and the need for an 
additional $100 million in federal funds annually for 10 years to 
address the institution's facilities revitalization, maintenance, and 
construction needs. According to Smithsonian officials, the 
representatives of the Smithsonian at the meeting told the President 
that they had no other options to obtain this $100 million except the 
Smithsonian's federal appropriation. According to Smithsonian 
officials, these representatives said the Smithsonian had made 
considerable expense cuts and raised substantial private funds, but 
donors are unwilling to donate money to repair and maintain facilities. 

The President's fiscal year 2008 budget proposal, published in February 
2007, proposed an increase of about $44 million over the Smithsonian's 
fiscal year 2007 appropriation. The Smithsonian's appropriation is 
divided into two categories. The about $44 million increase in the 
President's budget proposal represented an increase of about $9 million 
for facilities capital and an increase of about $35 million for 
salaries and expenses, which includes facilities maintenance.[Footnote 
8] However, funds in the salaries and expenses category also support 
many other activities, such as research, collections, and exhibitions, 
and it is not clear how much of the $35 million increase the 
Smithsonian would use for facilities maintenance. Moreover, Congress 
may choose to adopt or modify the President's budget proposal when 
funds are appropriated for the fiscal year. 

As part of our ongoing work, we are reviewing the Smithsonian's 
analysis of each funding option, including its potential for addressing 
its revitalization, construction, and maintenance needs. We plan to 
report on these issues later in the year. 

Concluding Observations: 

The Smithsonian's estimate for revitalization, construction, and 
maintenance needs has increased at an average of about $100 million a 
year over the past 2 years. Therefore, the Smithsonian's request for an 
additional $100 million a year may not actually reduce the 
Smithsonian's estimated revitalization, construction, and maintenance 
needs but only offset the increase in this estimate. Absent significant 
changes in the Smithsonian's funding strategy or significant increases 
in funding from Congress, the Smithsonian faces greater risk to its 
facilities and collections over time. Since our work is still ongoing, 
it remains unclear why the Smithsonian has only pursued one of its nine 
options for increasing funds to support its significant facilities 
needs. At this time, we still believe our recommendation that the 
Smithsonian explore a variety of funding options is important to 
reducing risks to the Smithsonian's facilities and collections. 

Madam Chairman, this concludes my prepared statement. I would be happy 
to respond to any questions you or other Members of the Committee may 
have at this time. 

[End of section] 

Scope and Methodology: 

We conducted our work for this testimony in March 2007 in accordance 
with generally accepted government auditing standards. Our work is 
based on our past report on the Smithsonian's facilities management and 
funding, our review of Smithsonian documents, and interviews with 
Smithsonian officials. Specifically, we reviewed the Smithsonian's 
revised estimated costs for major revitalization projects from fiscal 
year 2005 through fiscal year 2013 and documents from the Board of 
Regents. We also reviewed the President's fiscal year 2008 proposed 
budget and the Smithsonian's federal appropriations from fiscal years 
2005-2007. 

We are continuing to evaluate the Smithsonian's efforts to 
strategically manage, fund, and secure its real property. Our 
objectives include assessing (1) the extent to which the Smithsonian is 
strategically managing its real property portfolio, (2) the extent to 
which the Smithsonian has developed and implemented strategies to fund 
its revitalization, construction, and maintenance needs, and (3) the 
Smithsonian's security cost trends and challenges, including the extent 
to which the Smithsonian has followed key security practices to protect 
its assets. We are also examining how similar institutions, such as 
other museums and university systems, strategically manage, fund, and 
secure their real property. We expect to report on these issues later 
this year. 

[End of section] 

GAO Contact: 

Mark L. Goldstein, (202) 512-2834: 

Staff Acknowledgments: 

In addition to those named above, Colin Fallon, Brandon Haller, Carol 
Henn, Susan Michal-Smith, Dave Sausville, Gary Stofko, Alwynne Wilbur, 
Carrie Wilks, and Adam Yu made key contributions to this report. 

FOOTNOTES 

[1] Smithsonian Institution: Facilities Management Reorganization Is 
Progressing, but Funding Remains a Challenge, GAO-05-369 (Washington, 
D.C.: April 25, 2005). 

[2] GAO, Executive Guide: Leading Practices in Capital Decision-Making, 
GAO/AIMD-99-32 (Washington, D.C.: December 1998.) 

[3] The Smithsonian's estimated revitalization and new construction 
costs are driven in part by the need to modernize or add systems such 
as fire detection and alarm and security systems and to comply with 
newer code requirements such as those for handicapped accessibility to 
buildings and restrooms. Maintenance costs include such things as staff 
costs, minor repair and maintenance projects, and other contracts, 
supplies, materials, and equipment for Smithsonian's maintenance 
program. 

[4] At the time of our 2005 report (GAO-05-369), this building was 
referred to as the Patent Office Building. Its name was changed during 
its revitalization. 

[5] A master plan is a proposal of a comprehensive renovation and/or 
expansion of a complex that aligns the physical plant with the 
organization's strategic goals. It includes proposals such as making 
the complex conform to current codes, and meeting technology and 
security requirements. This process can also involve such things as 
upgrading and replacing major building systems, including the 
electrical, plumbing, fire suppression, and heating and air 
conditioning systems, as well as reinforcing the complex's structural 
integrity and removing asbestos. Master plans also identify changes in 
building use and expansion requirements to meet mission needs. 

[6] According to Smithsonian officials, the Smithsonian's fiscal year 
2007 appropriation included $98,554,760 for facilities capital and 
$536,295,000 for salaries and expenses, of which the facilities 
maintenance appropriation was $51,277,000. 

[7] Our recommendation was based on funding at the level of 
Smithsonian's fiscal year 2004 appropriation, which totaled $904 
million, with $184.4 million for facilities. 

[8] Specifically, the President's fiscal year 2008 budget proposal for 
the Smithsonian's appropriation proposed $107,100,000 for facilities 
capital and $571,347,000 for salaries and expenses. 

GAO's Mission: 

The Government Accountability Office, the audit, evaluation and 
investigative arm of Congress, exists to support Congress in meeting 
its constitutional responsibilities and to help improve the performance 
and accountability of the federal government for the American people. 
GAO examines the use of public funds; evaluates federal programs and 
policies; and provides analyses, recommendations, and other assistance 
to help Congress make informed oversight, policy, and funding 
decisions. GAO's commitment to good government is reflected in its core 
values of accountability, integrity, and reliability. 

Obtaining Copies of GAO Reports and Testimony: 

The fastest and easiest way to obtain copies of GAO documents at no 
cost is through GAO's Web site (www.gao.gov). Each weekday, GAO posts 
newly released reports, testimony, and correspondence on its Web site. 
To have GAO e-mail you a list of newly posted products every afternoon, 
go to www.gao.gov and select "Subscribe to Updates." 

Order by Mail or Phone: 

The first copy of each printed report is free. Additional copies are $2 
each. A check or money order should be made out to the Superintendent 
of Documents. GAO also accepts VISA and Mastercard. Orders for 100 or 
more copies mailed to a single address are discounted 25 percent. 
Orders should be sent to: 

U.S. Government Accountability Office 441 G Street NW, Room LM 
Washington, D.C. 20548: 

To order by Phone: Voice: (202) 512-6000 TDD: (202) 512-2537 Fax: (202) 
512-6061: 

To Report Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federal Programs: 

Contact: 

Web site: www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm E-mail: fraudnet@gao.gov 
Automated answering system: (800) 424-5454 or (202) 512-7470: 

Congressional Relations: 

Gloria Jarmon, Managing Director, JarmonG@gao.gov (202) 512-4400 U.S. 
Government Accountability Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7125 
Washington, D.C. 20548: 

Public Affairs: 

Paul Anderson, Managing Director, AndersonP1@gao.gov (202) 512-4800 
U.S. Government Accountability Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7149 
Washington, D.C. 20548: