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Testimony: 

Before the Subcommittee on the Legislative Branch, Committee on 
Appropriations, U.S. Senate: 

United States Government Accountability Office: 

GAO: 

For Release on Delivery Expected at 10:30 a.m. EST: 

Wednesday, February 15, 2006: 

Capitol Visitor Center: 

Results of Risk-based Analysis of Schedule and Cost: 

Statement of Bernard L. Ungar, Director: 
Terrell Dorn, Assistant Director: 
Physical Infrastructure Issues: 

GAO-06-440T: 

Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee: 

We are pleased to be here today to assist the Subcommittee in 
monitoring progress on the Capitol Visitor Center (CVC) project. Our 
remarks will focus on (1) our assessment of the risks associated with 
AOC's December 2005 schedule, and our estimate of a time frame for 
opening the project to the public; and (2) the project's costs and 
funding, including the potential impact of scheduling issues that have 
arisen since the Subcommittee's November 16, 2005, hearing on the CVC 
project's schedule and cost.[Footnote 1] 

Our remarks today are based on our review of schedules and financial 
reports for the CVC project and related records maintained by AOC and 
its construction management contractor, Gilbane Building Company; our 
observations on the progress of work at the CVC construction site; and 
our discussions with the CVC team (including AOC and its major CVC 
contractors), AOC's Chief Fire Marshal, and representatives from the 
United States Capitol Police (USCP). We also reviewed applicable 
appropriations legislation and AOC's construction management 
contractor's periodic schedule assessments and daily reports on the 
progress of interior wall and floor stonework. 

With the assistance of a consultant, Hulett & Associates, we assessed 
the risks associated with AOC's December 2005 schedule for the base CVC 
project and used the results of our assessment to estimate a time frame 
for completing the base project with and without identified risks and 
uncertainties. In January 2006, we and our consultant interviewed 
project managers and team members from AOC and its major CVC 
contractors, USCP representatives, and AOC's Chief Fire Marshal to 
identify the risks they saw in completing the remaining work and the 
time they considered necessary to finish the CVC project and open it to 
the public. Using the project's November and December 2005 schedules 
(the most recent schedules available when we did our work), we asked 
the team members to estimate how many workdays would be needed to 
complete the remaining work. More specifically, for each major activity 
that the members had a role or expertise in, we asked them to develop 
three estimates of the activity's duration--the least, the most likely, 
and the longest time needed to complete the activity. Using these three-
point estimates and a simulation analysis to calculate different 
combinations of the team's estimates that factored in identified risks 
and uncertainties, we estimated the completion date for the base 
project at various confidence levels based on AOC's December 2005 
schedule. Finally, we reviewed AOC's schedule for the construction of 
the House and Senate expansion spaces, but did not assess the risks 
associated with the work.[Footnote 2] 

In addition, we estimated the likely cost of the project at completion, 
factoring in risks and uncertainties, using information obtained from 
our interviews, contract modifications, the proposed change order log 
maintained by AOC's construction management contractor, and the 
previously mentioned simulation analysis. We did not perform an audit; 
rather, we performed our work to assist Congress in conducting its 
oversight activities. 

In summary: 

Since the Subcommittee's November 16 CVC hearing, AOC and the CVC team 
have moved the project's construction forward and significantly revised 
the schedule, particularly for the base project. For example, they have 
reached agreement with AOC's Chief Fire Marshal on the schedule for 
testing the base project's life safety systems and have enhanced the 
manner in which the project's operations schedule is incorporated into 
the project's master schedule. In addition, they have reviewed and 
revised the schedule, postponing the opening dates for the CVC and the 
House and Senate expansion spaces by about 2 months each. Under AOC's 
revised schedule, the CVC would be open to the public in February 2007 
with a temporary cap on visitor occupancy, and the expansion spaces 
would be open in April 2007. However, to allow for possible delays and 
start-up time for operations, AOC is proposing to open the CVC in April 
2007 and the expansion spaces in May 2007, at which time the temporary 
cap on CVC occupancy would be lifted. 

We concur with AOC about the need for postponing the opening dates, but 
do not believe that AOC has scheduled enough time to complete several 
of the project's critical tasks and to address the problems, 
challenges, risks, and uncertainties that AOC and the CVC team are 
attempting to address. If they are successful in addressing these 
issues, we believe that the CVC can be opened to the public with the 
temporary cap on visitor occupancy in May 2007 and that the expansion 
spaces can be opened beginning in mid-August to early September 2007. 
Congress may be able to begin occupying the expansion spaces earlier if 
AOC implements a phased opening plan it is considering. However, if AOC 
experiences major problems completing construction, such as with 
installing interior stone or testing major building systems, the work 
could be finished even later than we have estimated. 

According to our current estimate, the total estimated cost to complete 
the entire CVC project is about $555 million without an allowance for 
risks and uncertainties. This estimate exceeds our November 16, 2005, 
estimate by about $12 million because we and AOC's construction 
management contractor are now projecting further delay-related costs. 
Changes in the project's design and scope have also been occurring, and 
more are likely. For example, the project's fire protection system has 
been evolving, and the system is now expected to cost more than 
previously estimated. To date, about $528 million has been provided for 
CVC construction. Thus, we now estimate that another $25.6 million will 
be needed to complete construction without an allowance for risks and 
uncertainties and taking into account funding from existing 
appropriations that AOC is planning to use. With an allowance for risks 
and uncertainties, we now estimate that the project could cost as much 
as about $584 million at completion, or about $25 million more than we 
estimated in November 2005. Estimated costs for the tunnel connecting 
the CVC with the Library of Congress are still within, but are now 
approaching, the $10 million statutorily mandated limit. 

AOC Has Moved Construction Forward, Revised the Project's Schedule, and 
Postponed Opening Dates: 

AOC and the CVC team have continued to refine the project's schedule 
since the November hearing and have made substantive progress in 
addressing the issues that we and the Subcommittee have raised, 
particularly concerning the base project's schedule. For example, the 
CVC team reviewed the sequence and duration of the activities scheduled 
for interior stonework, finish work, and work associated with the base 
project's fire protection system, including the acceptance testing to 
be done by AOC's Fire Marshal Division. To reflect the results of its 
review, the team revised the project's December 2005 and January 2006 
schedules, and in collaboration with the team that is planning for CVC 
operations, enhanced the manner in which the operations activities are 
incorporated into the project's master schedule.[Footnote 3] AOC and 
its contractors' staff who are involved in planning for CVC operations 
agree that the January 2006 schedule identifies the related 
construction and operations activities. The CVC team has not yet fully 
reassessed the schedule for the expansion spaces and has not yet 
reached agreement with the Chief Fire Marshal on the requirements for 
acceptance testing of those spaces. Finally, the CVC team has continued 
to meet weekly to identify risks facing the project and to discuss 
mitigation strategies and actions. As of February 1, 2006, the team had 
identified 62 risks and developed mitigation strategies for all but 1, 
which had just been identified. The plans vary in their level of detail 
and stage of implementation. 

According to AOC's December 2005 and January 2006 schedules, the CVC 
base project will be ready to open to the public with a temporary 
certificate of occupancy on February 13, 2007, and the House and Senate 
expansion spaces will be ready on April 24, 2007. To allow for possible 
delays and start-up time for operations, AOC has proposed an April 2007 
opening date for the base project and a May 2007 occupancy date for the 
expansion spaces. By the April opening date for the base project, AOC 
believes, all construction work in the CVC and East Front will be 
completed, but the CVC's occupancy at any one time will be temporarily 
limited to 3,500, compared with about 4,200, the normal anticipated 
occupancy level. This temporary limit will be necessary because the 
"horizontal exits," or passages, through the expansion spaces, which 
the life safety code requires for exiting the base CVC project, will 
not be available until later. These horizontal exits cannot be used 
until the fire alarm system in the expansion spaces has been fully 
tested and accepted--work that is not slated to be completed until 
after the base CVC is scheduled to open. Some additional work will 
likely be required to provide temporary emergency exit routes from the 
CVC, but the CVC team does not believe that this work or its costs 
should be substantial. 

Mr. Chairman, a brief explanation of AOC's rationale for proposing a 
CVC opening with a temporary cap on visitor occupancy may be helpful at 
this point. The current project schedule calls for completing the 
construction of both the CVC and the expansion spaces before December 
31, 2006, but would delay the start of acceptance testing the portions 
of the fire alarm system in the expansion spaces until such testing for 
the base CVC project is completed in February 2007. AOC is planning 
this approach because it believes that starting the acceptance testing 
for the expansion spaces earlier would prolong the completion of the 
acceptance testing in the base project and thereby delay the base 
project's opening to the public. More specifically, the fire protection 
devices for the atriums, which are a part of the horizontal exits 
ultimately required by code for full occupancy of the base project, 
would undergo acceptance testing with the expansion spaces, rather than 
with the base CVC project. To accommodate this change, AOC shifted the 
finish work in the atriums from the base CVC schedule to the expansion 
space schedule, and is planning to conduct the acceptance testing for 
the atriums and the expansion spaces at the same time, after the 
acceptance testing for the base CVC project is done. Until the 
acceptance testing for the expansion spaces has been completed, AOC's 
Chief Fire Marshal has said that the expansion spaces, including the 
exits through the atriums, cannot be used as emergency exit routes, and 
therefore AOC must take measures to provide temporary emergency exit 
routes from the base CVC project and reduce the number of occupants who 
can be in the base project until the exit routes are available. 

Our Analysis Indicates Later Opening Dates in Light of Problems, 
Challenges, Risks, and Uncertainties: 

Our work to date in monitoring the CVC project and the results of our 
recently completed risk assessment of the project's schedule point to 
later opening dates than the schedule indicates. Although the schedule 
for the base project goes a long way toward responding to our concerns 
about the amount of time previously provided for a number of activities 
and extends their duration, CVC team managers and members we 
interviewed believe that certain work will take longer to complete than 
the revised schedule allows. For example, they believe that interior 
stonework and finish work for the base project and the East Front are 
likely to take longer. According to our risk analysis, which reflects 
the CVC team's input and assumes that AOC will successfully address the 
challenges it faces, the CVC is more likely to be ready for opening 
with a temporary certificate of occupancy between late April and mid- 
May 2007 than in February, as indicated in AOC's current schedule. AOC 
is now proposing an April 2007 opening date to provide time for 
possible construction slippages and operations preparation. The 
additional time AOC says is necessary for operations preparation after 
construction completion would mean that the CVC would be ready for 
opening with a temporary cap on visitor occupancy by about the end of 
May 2007, according to our analysis. Similarly, our analysis suggests 
that the House and Senate expansion spaces are more likely to be ready 
in mid August or early September 2007 than in April or May 2007. We 
believe the later time frames are more likely because (1) AOC has 
scheduled the acceptance testing of the expansion spaces after the 
acceptance testing of the base project and, according to our work, the 
base project testing will take longer than scheduled and (2) AOC's 
Chief Fire Marshal believes that the acceptance testing of the 
expansion spaces will take longer than scheduled. 

We have discussed the results of our analysis with AOC, and it 
continues to believe that it will be able to meet its April and May 
2007 time frames for the CVC and the expansion spaces, respectively. 
Furthermore, AOC said that it and the CVC team will continuously review 
the schedule to identify opportunities for improvement. For example, 
AOC pointed out that it may be able to have the acceptance testing of 
the expansion spaces done in segments so that Members and staff will 
not have to wait for the entire facility to be tested before they can 
occupy their space. AOC also believes it may be able to revise the 
scheduling of some East Front mechanical work to save time. We agree 
that AOC should continuously look for ways to improve the schedule and 
that improvements may be possible. However, we also believe that AOC 
will be challenged to meet even the later opening dates we have 
identified given the problems, challenges, risks, and uncertainties the 
project faces. A discussion of these follows: 

* Delivery of stone and pace of stone installation remain critical. 
Although the CVC team has made progress in installing interior wall and 
floor stone, work on the wall stone has fallen behind schedule in 
several areas, and the project still faces significant challenges, 
risks, and uncertainties in this area. These include whether sufficient 
quantities of the appropriate wall stone will be received in time and 
whether the pace of installation will be sufficient to complete this 
work as scheduled. According to information provided by the sequence 2 
contractor on February 10, the wall stone supplier still had a 20- 
truckload backlog and was not shipping wall stone at the scheduled 
rate, resulting in a delivery shortfall of about 6,000 cubic feet. 
According to AOC's construction management contractor, stone supply is 
not affecting interior wall stone installation because a large quantity 
of stone is currently on site; however, the contractor is concerned 
about the ability of the stone supplier to meet current and future 
requirements that include stone for the East Front, adequate stone to 
maintain productivity, and the 20-truckload backlog. The pace of 
installation is also an issue. The sequence 2 contractor has recently 
increased the number of stone masons working on the project and has 
begun meeting the installation targets in its work plan. However, if 
the wall stone installation targets are not achieved, whether because 
the masons are less productive than planned or work spaces are not 
ready for stonework to begin, completion delays are likely. The 
sequence 2 contractor has already encountered work spaces in the 
service level, the orientation lobby, and the East Front that were not 
available for stonework because concrete was out of tolerance or 
masonry walls were not ready for wall stone to be hung. Finally, the 
sequence 2 contractor still needs to install about 120,000 square feet 
of floor stone in the CVC and could have problems meeting the scheduled 
completion dates if not enough masons are available, the amount of 
floor space available is insufficient because other finish work is not 
done, or other trades are working in the areas where floor stone is to 
be laid. As of February 10, AOC had not received a floor stone 
installation plan requested from the sequence 2 contractor, but the 
sequence 2 contractor said that it intends to finish the plan soon. 

* Stacking of trades could delay completion. Continued delays, 
particularly in wall stone installation, could adversely affect the 
sequence 2 contractor's ability to accomplish all of the required 
finish work on schedule. The sequence 2 contractor has been making 
progress relative to its current plan for installing wall stone in the 
auditorium and the orientation lobby, but according to the current 
project schedule, wall stone installation is delayed in other areas, 
such as the East Front, the great hall, and the orientation theaters' 
exterior walls. Furthermore, as of February 10, although the contractor 
had completed 10 of the 13 milestones relating to wall stone that are 
being tracked for the Subcommittee, none of the 10 was completed by the 
date set in the September 2005 baseline schedule, and only 4 were 
completed by the date set in the November 2005 schedule. (See app. I.) 
If delays continue, a stacking of trades such as we described at the 
Subcommittee's November hearing could hold up finish work, such as 
drywall or ceiling installation, electrical and plumbing work, 
plastering, or floor stone installation.[Footnote 4] Such a situation 
could also increase the risk of accidents and injuries. The CVC team 
has also identified "trade stacking" as a high risk. The sequence 2 
contractor acknowledges the risk, but said that it has structured its 
schedule to avoid the risk and plans to monitor progress closely to 
avoid problems. We acknowledge that these steps can be helpful; 
however, the more the wall stone schedule slips, the greater is the 
likelihood of "trade stacking," since more and more work will have to 
be done in less time to meet the schedule. AOC's construction 
management contractor agrees that this is a serious potential problem. 

* Complex building systems remain a significant risk. The CVC will 
contain complex building systems, including systems for heating, air 
conditioning, and ventilation; fire protection; and security. These 
systems not only have to perform well individually, but their operation 
has to be integrated. If the CVC team encounters any significant 
problems with their functioning, either individually or together, 
during commissioning or testing, the project could be seriously 
delayed. AOC and the CVC team are aware of these risks and have been 
taking steps to mitigate them as part of their risk management process. 
Yet despite these steps, a significant problem could arise during 
commissioning or testing, and it is important that the team be prepared 
for such an event. 

* Building design continues to evolve. The CVC has undergone a number 
of design changes, and design changes are continuing for a number of 
building components, such as the exhibit gallery and the fire 
protection and security systems. Some of these changes have resulted in 
delays, such as in the exhibit gallery and in the East Front. In 
addition, designs or shop drawings for some elements of the project, 
such as aspects of the facility's fire protection systems, have not yet 
been fully approved and are subject to change. At this stage of the 
project's construction, one might expect the number of design changes 
to dwindle. However, this is not the case. For example, more than 20 
design changes or clarifications were issued last month. Additional 
design changes are being considered, and the potential exists for such 
changes to further adversely affect the schedule. 

* Multiple critical activity paths complicate schedule management. In 
its report on the project's January 2006 schedule, AOC's construction 
management contractor identified 18 critical activity paths--4 more 
than in the contractor's report on the project's October 2005 schedule-
-that are crucial to meeting the scheduled completion date. In 
addition, the construction management contractor said that several 
noncritical activities have fallen behind schedule since November 2005, 
and a number of these have moved closer to becoming critical to the 
project's completion. As we have previously said, having a large number 
of critical and near-critical activities complicates project management 
and increases the risk of missing completion dates. We believe that the 
CVC team will be particularly challenged to manage all of these areas 
concurrently and to deal effectively with problems that could arise 
within these areas, especially if multiple problems arise at the same 
time. 

Estimated Project Costs Exceed Funding Provided as of February 2006: 

We currently estimate that the total cost to complete the entire CVC 
project is about $555 million without an allowance for risks and 
uncertainties and could be as much as about $584 million with such an 
allowance. As table 1 indicates, our current estimate without an 
allowance for risks and uncertainties is about $12 million higher than 
the estimate without such an allowance that we presented at the 
Subcommittee's November 16, 2005, hearing.[Footnote 5] This $12 million 
increase is largely attributable to additional: 

* delay costs estimated by AOC's construction management contractor 
and: 

* actual and anticipated changes in the design and scope of the 
project. 

Table 1: Comparison of November 2005 and February 2006 CVC Construction 
Cost Estimates: 

Dollars in millions: 

Estimate: With risks and uncertainties; 
February 15, 2006: $584; 
November 16, 2005: $559; 
Difference: $25. 

Estimate: Without risks and uncertainties; 
February 15, 2006: $555; 
November 16, 2005: $543; 
Difference: $12. 

Estimate: Allowance for risks and uncertainties/Difference; 
February 15, 2006: $29; 
November 16, 2005: $16; 
Difference: $13. 

Source: GAO analysis of AOC data. 

[End of table] 

In particular, changes in the project's fire protection system, which 
we discussed at the Subcommittee's October 18, 2005, CVC hearing, are 
now expected to cost more than previously estimated. Specifically, the 
system's acceptance testing is expected to be more extensive and to 
take place later than originally anticipated, and additional temporary 
construction may be required to ensure fire safety if the CVC is opened 
to the public before the Senate and House expansion spaces are 
completed. This additional construction would involve designing and 
installing--and then removing--temporary walls and perhaps taking other 
fire protection measures to create emergency exits from the CVC. As 
discussed in more detail earlier in this statement, the need for 
temporary construction may be reduced or eliminated if the fire safety 
acceptance testing of the expansion spaces and of the CVC can be 
performed concurrently, rather than over two separate periods, as would 
be likely if the CVC is opened to the public before the expansion 
spaces are completed. We discussed this issue during the Subcommittee's 
July 14, 2005, CVC hearing[Footnote 6] and recommended then that AOC 
estimate the cost of these temporary measures so that Congress could 
weigh the costs and benefits of opening the CVC before the expansion 
spaces are completed. AOC has agreed to provide this estimate to 
Congress when it has more information on the status of construction 
progress on the CVC and expansion spaces and the specific steps that 
will be necessary to provide adequate temporary exit routes.[Footnote 
7] 

We now estimate that the total cost to complete the entire project with 
an allowance for risks and uncertainties could be as much as $584 
million, or about $25 million more than we estimated in November 2005. 
This increase reflects the potential for the project to incur 
additional costs if: 

* difficulties arise in commissioning and testing its complex and 
sophisticated fire protection, ventilation, and security systems; 

* significant problems with the building's design are identified and 
need to be corrected during construction; 

* delays cost more than anticipated;[Footnote 8] and: 

* significant discretionary changes in the project's design and scope 
are requested. 

To date, about $528 million has been provided for CVC construction. 
This amount does not include about $7.7 million that was made available 
for either CVC construction or operations.[Footnote 9] According to 
AOC, it expects to use about $2 million of this amount for 
construction. To obtain the additional funding that it expected to need 
to complete the project's construction, AOC, in December 2005, 
requested $20.6 million as part of its budget request for fiscal year 
2007. This request was based, in part, on discussions with us and took 
into account our November 16, 2005, estimate of the cost to complete 
the project's construction without an allowance for risks and 
uncertainties and funding from existing appropriations. The request 
also reflected updates to our November estimate through mid-December 
2005. At that time, the $20.6 million request for additional 
appropriations, coupled with the additional funds that AOC planned to 
use from existing appropriations, would have been sufficient to cover 
the estimated cost to complete construction without an allowance for 
risks and uncertainties. 

Our work since mid-December 2005 indicates that AOC will need about $5 
million more, or about $25.6 million in additional funds, to complete 
construction without an allowance for risks and uncertainties.[Footnote 
10] This increase reflects: 

* the number and magnitude of potential change orders that CVC team 
members and we believe are likely and: 

* additional costs associated with extending the project's expected 
completion date beyond March 31, 2007, the date contemplated in our 
last cost estimate. 

AOC generally agrees with our estimate, particularly with respect to 
having sufficient contingency funds available for necessary design or 
scope changes or for additional delay-related costs. 

Estimated Construction Costs for Library of Congress Tunnel Close to, 
but under, Limit: 

Public Law 108-83 limits to $10 million the amount of federal funds 
that can be obligated or expended for the construction of the tunnel 
connecting the CVC with the Library of Congress. As of February 14, 
2006, AOC estimated that the tunnel's construction would cost about 
$9.8 million, and AOC's total obligations for the Library of Congress 
tunnel construction work totaled about $8.7 million. AOC's remaining 
estimated costs are for potential changes. 

On February 13, 2006, AOC awarded a contract for the work to connect 
the tunnel to the Jefferson Building. This work is costing more than 
AOC had estimated--a possibility we raised in our November 16 testimony 
before the Subcommittee. Because this work involves creating an opening 
in the building's foundation and changing the existing structure, we 
believe that AOC is likely to encounter unforeseen conditions that 
could further increase its costs. Therefore, we included additional 
contingency funds for this work in our $555 million estimate of the 
cost to complete the CVC project's construction. Both AOC and we plan 
to monitor the remaining tunnel and Jefferson Building construction 
work closely to ensure that the statutory spending limit is not 
exceeded. 

Mr. Chairman, in conclusion, AOC has responded to many of the schedule- 
related concerns we have identified, but its planned opening date for 
the CVC is still somewhat optimistic. For AOC to meet even our 
estimated opening time frame, we believe that it is critically 
important for the CVC team to do the following: 

* Aggressively take all necessary and appropriate actions to install 
interior wall and floor stone as expeditiously as possible, including 
seeing that sufficient quantities of masons, stone, and work space are 
available when needed to meet the wall stonework plan and the 
forthcoming floor stone installation plan. 

* Closely monitor construction to identify potential "trade stacking" 
and promptly take steps to prevent it or effectively address it should 
it occur. 

* Reassess its risk mitigation plans to ensure that the team takes the 
steps necessary to prevent a major building system problem during 
commissioning or testing and has measures in place to deal quickly with 
problems should they arise. 

* Carefully consider the necessity of proposed scope and design changes 
and attempt to minimize the impact of necessary changes on the 
project's schedule and cost. 

* Reassess the capacity of the CVC team (AOC and its contractors) to 
effectively manage and coordinate the schedule and work from this point 
forward, particularly with respect to the large number of activities 
that are currently critical, or close to being critical, to the 
project's timely completion. 

* Identify and consider the pros and cons (including the estimated 
costs) of opening the CVC and expansion spaces at about the same time 
and provide this information to Congress. 

We have discussed these actions with AOC, and it generally agrees with 
them. It pointed out that it would be in a better position to assess 
the pros and cons of opening the CVC and the expansion spaces 
concurrently when construction is further along and it becomes clearer 
when the work will actually be done. This appears reasonable to us. 

We would be pleased to answer any questions that you or Members of the 
Subcommittee may have. 

Contacts and Acknowledgments: 

For further information about this testimony, please contact Bernard 
Ungar at (202) 512-4232 or Terrell Dorn at (202) 512-6923. Other key 
contributors to this testimony include Shirley Abel, John Craig, Maria 
Edelstein, Elizabeth Eisenstadt, Brett Fallavollita, Jeanette Franzel, 
Jackie Hamilton, Bradley James, and Scott Riback. 

[End of section] 

Appendix I: Capitol Visitor Center Critical Construction Milestones 
November 16, 2005-February 15, 2006: 

Activity: Orientation Lobby; 
Location: Perimeter CMU walls; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 10/13/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/02/05; 
Actual finish date: 12/29/05. 

Activity: East Front Subbasement; 
Location: Interior CMU walls; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 10/02/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/06/05; 
Actual finish date: N/A. 

Activity: Exhibit Gallery; 
Location: Wall Stone Area 2 base; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 10/31/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/07/05; 
Actual finish date: 12/23/05. 

Activity: Exhibit Gallery; 
Location: Wall Stone Area 3 base; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 11/10/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/02/05; 
Actual finish date: 12/28/05. 

Activity: Orientation Lobby; 
Location: Interior CMU walls; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 11/15/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/09/05; 
Actual finish date: 12/30/05. 

Activity: Exhibit Gallery; 
Location: Wall Stone Area 1; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 11/16/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/16/05; 
Actual finish date: 01/06/06. 

Activity: Congressional Auditorium; 
Location: Wall Stone Area 2; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 11/17/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/05/05; 
Actual finish date: 01/13/06. 

Activity: Congressional Auditorium; 
Location: Wall Stone Area 3; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/05/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 02/06/06; 
Actual finish date: 01/13/06. 

Activity: Upper Level Assembly Room; 
Location: Wall Stone Area 1; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/13/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 01/13/06; 
Actual finish date: 01/11/06. 

Activity: Exhibit Gallery; 
Location: Wall Stone Area 3; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/14/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 01/16/06; 
Actual finish date: 01/06/06. 

Activity: Upper Level Assembly Room; 
Location: Wall Stone Area 2; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/29/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 01/30/06; 
Actual finish date: 01/20/06. 

Activity: Upper Level Orientation Lobby; 
Location: Wall Stone Area 1 Pedestals; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 1/11/06; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 02/09/06; 
Actual finish date: N/A. 

Activity: Upper Level Orientation Lobby; 
Location: Wall Stone Area 2 Pedestals; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 1/23/06; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 02/21/06; 
Actual finish date: N/A. 

Activity: Utility Tunnel; 
Location: Install Walls Sta. 1+00-2+00; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 11/04/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/06/05; 
Actual finish date: 12/23/05. 

Activity: Utility Tunnel; 
Location: Install Roof Sta. 1+00-2+00; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 11/28/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/16/05; 
Actual finish date: 01/05/06. 

Activity: Utility Tunnel; 
Location: Install Roof Sta. 0+00-1+00; 
September 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/05/05; 
November 2005 scheduled finish date: 12/21/05; 
Actual finish date: 12/07/05. 

Source: AOC's September and November 2005 CVC sequence 2 construction 
schedules for the scheduled completion dates and AOC and its 
construction management contractor for the actual completion dates. 

[End of table] 

FOOTNOTES 

[1] See GAO, Capitol Visitor Center: Update on Schedule and Cost, GAO-
06-251T (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 16, 2005). 

[2] We did not assess the risks associated with the schedule for the 
expansion spaces because the CVC team took longer than expected to 
complete the December schedule. We did not receive the final December 
schedule until January 27, 2006, and therefore did not have enough time 
to fully analyze the expansion space schedule before the Subcommittee's 
February hearing. Furthermore, CVC project staff told us that they had 
not yet had an opportunity to carefully assess the expansion space 
schedule. 

[3] The January 2006 project schedule reflects revisions in various 
activities, but the completion dates for the CVC and expansion spaces 
did not change from the December 2005 project schedule. 

[4] Stacking of trades can occur when workers from different trades, 
such as stone masons, electricians, plumbers, or plasterers, have to 
work in the same area at the same time to meet a schedule, sometimes 
making it difficult to ensure sufficient space and resources for 
concurrent work. 

[5] Our work identified one project element--the acquisition and 
installation of USCP's technical security equipment--that is now 
expected to cost less than budgeted. Although the $12 million net 
increase reflects a decrease in estimated cost for this element without 
an allowance for risks and uncertainties, our $584 million estimate 
recognizes that there is some risk associated with this item and thus 
includes funding for such risk. 

[6] GAO, Capitol Visitor Center: Update on Status of Project's Schedule 
and Costs, GAO-05-910T (Washington, D.C.: July 14, 2005). 

[7] The temporary work necessary will depend on various factors, such 
as whether the sprinkler and smoke control systems are fully 
functional. 

[8] It is important to note that the delay-related costs included in 
our estimates have been made for budgetary purposes only and do not 
reflect an assessment of the government's responsibility for any 
delays. Furthermore, it should be recognized that estimating the 
government's costs for delays that occurred after November 2004 is 
difficult because delays have occurred for different reasons and it is 
unclear who ultimately will bear responsibility for the various delays 
that have occurred. 

[9] Public Law 108-447, enacted on December 8, 2004, provided that up 
to $10.6 million could be transferred from AOC's Capitol Building 
appropriation account for the use of the CVC project. The use of the 
amount transferred is subject to the approval of the House and Senate 
Committees on Appropriations. In June 2005, AOC received approval to 
use about $2.8 million of this $10.6 million, leaving a balance of 
about $7.7 million that can be used in the future after a rescission 
amounting to $84,800. 

[10] AOC has asked for additional funds in its fiscal year 2007 budget 
request under its general administration budget for contractual support 
to its Fire Marshal Division which includes support for acceptance 
testing for the CVC. This request is not included in our cost-to- 
complete estimate or estimate of additional CVC funds needed for fiscal 
year 2007.