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Recruiting Efforts, but Its Human Capital Strategic Plan Does Not 
Adequately Project or Address Its Future Workforce Needs' which was 
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May 16, 2007: 

Subject: MSHA's Revised Hiring Process Has Improved the Agency's 
Recruiting Efforts, but Its Human Capital Strategic Plan Does Not 
Adequately Project or Address Its Future Workforce Needs: 

Congressional Requesters: 

In 2003, GAO recommended that the Mine Safety and Health Administration 
(MSHA) develop a plan for addressing anticipated shortages in the 
number of qualified inspectors due to upcoming retirements, including 
considering options such as streamlining the agency's hiring process 
and offering retention bonuses.[Footnote 1] As you requested, we 
conducted follow-up work on the implementation of this recommendation. 
We reviewed MSHA's human capital planning documents and obtained data 
on the number of inspectors employed by MSHA and the number of them 
eligible for retirement. In addition, we interviewed officials 
responsible for MSHA's human resources department, officials in MSHA's 
district offices, and officials at the National Mine Health and Safety 
Academy. We completed our work between June 2006 and March 2007 in 
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. 

In 2004, MSHA began a new process for hiring mine inspectors under the 
auspices of the Federal Career Intern Program (FCIP)--a federal program 
designed to recruit and retain high caliber candidates and develop 
their professional abilities. The use of the FCIP has led to a number 
of improvements in inspector recruiting and hiring, such as being able 
to identify applicants with the basic skills needed to be a successful 
inspector early in the process and decreasing the time it takes the 
agency to hire new inspectors. Since MSHA began using the program, the 
agency has hired 236 new coal mine inspector trainees. 

However, while MSHA has taken significant steps to improve its hiring 
process, the agency's human capital plan does not include a strategic 
approach for addressing the large number of retirements expected in the 
next 5 years. MSHA estimates that over 40 percent of its inspectors 
will be eligible for retirement by 2012. District officials expressed 
concerns about the impact that losing experienced inspectors may have 
on the agency's ability to achieve its goals, particularly completing 
required safety and health inspections on time. We are recommending 
that MSHA engage in a strategic planning effort that utilizes the data 
it collects on expected retirements and actual attrition to develop 
goals that can be monitored and evaluated. 

Background: 

Mine safety and health inspectors carry out the day-to-day 
responsibility of ensuring that underground coal mines are safe and 
hazard-free workplaces. The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, 
as amended (the Mine Act) requires that representatives of MSHA conduct 
frequent inspections and investigations in coal and other mines each 
year for the purpose of: 

* obtaining, utilizing, and disseminating information relating to 
health and safety conditions; the causes of accidents; and the causes 
of diseases and physical impairments originating in such mines; 

* gathering information with respect to mandatory health or safety 
standards; 

* determining whether an imminent danger exists; and: 

* determining whether there is compliance with the mandatory health or 
safety standards detailed in the act, or with citations, orders, or 
decisions issued under the act. 

For underground coal mines, MSHA is required to inspect each mine in 
its entirety at least four times a year. The agency also has the 
authority to conduct more frequent inspections for some mines, such as 
those that liberate excessive quantities of methane or other explosive 
gases. It is the job of the inspectors to conduct these inspections and 
issue citations for any violations of the health and safety standards. 
Inspectors are granted a great deal of responsibility and ultimately 
have the authority to interrupt a mine's production in certain 
circumstances. 

The Mine Act outlines the qualifications each mine inspector must 
possess: 

* practical experience in mining, 

* experience as a practical mining engineer, or: 

* education. 

In addition, 5 years of practical experience is preferred, but not 
required.[Footnote 2] 

As we identified in our 2003 report, the inspector workforce is in a 
state of transition. At the time of that report, we recommended that 
MSHA develop a plan for addressing anticipated shortages in the number 
of qualified inspectors due to upcoming retirements. As a part of that 
recommendation, we suggested that the agency consider options such as 
streamlining its hiring process and offering retention bonuses. This 
recommendation stemmed from the finding that, at that time, between 20 
and 86 percent of the underground coal mine inspectors in the agency's 
11 districts were eligible for retirement within 5 years--an average of 
44 percent across all of the districts. In addition to the anticipated 
turnover in experienced inspectors, the officials we talked with at 
that time reported difficulty in hiring new inspectors quickly and 
training them to replace outgoing staff. 

MSHA Developed a Strategic Approach to Hire Mine Inspectors: 

In 2004, MSHA began using the FCIP to hire new mine inspectors. Since 
it began using the program, MSHA has hired 301 interns, 236 of whom are 
coal mine inspector trainees.[Footnote 3] The FCIP requires agencies to 
determine how the program can be used to fulfill recruitment needs for 
particular occupations, and develop procedures for accepting 
applications, evaluating, and selecting candidates. They also must 
implement a formal training program for the interns and monitor program 
activities. MSHA's use of this program has led to a number of 
improvements in its hiring practices. 

Through the FCIP, MSHA developed a process for assessing applicants' 
skills, conducting interviews, and providing applicants with immediate 
feedback on their aptitude during 1-day job fairs held in locations 
around the country. As of October 2004, all applicants for inspector 
positions must attend job fairs, where they are tested on basic math 
and writing skills. In order to interview with MSHA for the positions, 
applicants must pass these standardized exams. MSHA reported that this 
screening process has helped the agency maximize its resources, since 
the exams identify at an early stage applicants who do not have the 
basic skills needed to become a successful inspector. For example, of 
the 1,256 applicants tested in 2005 and 2006, 49 percent failed either 
the math or written exam, or both. 

In comparison, MSHA's previous hiring process limited its ability to 
assess the skills and abilities of applicants for mine inspector 
positions. MSHA officials explained that, under the old process, 
applicants were ranked by experience, and their basic skills were not 
considered. For example, they explained that the agency hired people 
with considerable mining experience, but some of them had weak reading 
and writing skills. As a result, MSHA spent time during new mine 
inspector training teaching these basic skills. A skills inventory 
conducted by the Department of Labor in fiscal year 2003 identified the 
need to close the competency gaps in the mine safety and health 
inspector workforce in three areas: oral communication; writing; and 
legal, government, and jurisprudence.[Footnote 4] The new assessment 
process used during the job fairs is a step toward ensuring that MSHA's 
inspectors have a standard level of proficiency. 

Applicants that successfully complete the math and written exams move 
on to a structured interview with a panel of MSHA officials that 
includes an administrative official, such as someone from human 
resources, and one supervisory or management official. During the 
interviews, the same questions are posed to all applicants at each job 
fair in the same order. The questions assess, among other things, the 
applicant's general skills in areas such as problem solving, 
interpersonal skills, and oral communication. In addition, applicants 
for higher paying positions are asked about their knowledge of and 
experience in mining, including experience with inspections and 
knowledge of the laws and regulations governing mines. 

Under its new approach, MSHA has been able to reduce the amount of time 
it takes to hire a new mine inspector. Under the old hiring process, 
MSHA officials reported that it often took up to 180 days to hire an 
inspector. Now, agency officials reported that they have reduced the 
hiring time to 45 days or less.[Footnote 5] In addition, the Office of 
Personnel Management approved MSHA's request to hire mine inspectors 
through the FCIP under a broader range of pay scale levels, which 
allows the agency to hire individuals with a broader range of 
experiences.[Footnote 6] For example, an applicant might have little 
experience in mining but possess relevant experience in construction 
and electrical engineering. This applicant would be hired as a mine 
inspector trainee at the lower end of the pay scale and given 
additional training in areas specific to mine health and safety. 
Similarly, MSHA can hire highly experienced applicants, such as those 
with knowledge of progressive mining methods, at the higher end of the 
pay scale as an incentive to attract these candidates. 

In addition, MSHA officials commented that the job fairs have helped 
the agency reduce the number of interagency transfers that occurred 
under its old hiring process, which was a significant problem. 
According to these officials, because applicants from any location 
could apply for positions in any MSHA district office, they often 
applied for a position in one location and then, shortly after being 
hired, applied for a transfer to the area where they lived. Now, 
however, since job fairs are held in the locations where applicants are 
being sought and applicants must attend the job fairs in person, they 
tend to live in those communities and are less likely to request a 
transfer to another location once they are hired.[Footnote 7] 

Appointments to the FCIP are generally for 2 years, at which point the 
intern may be offered a permanent position. During the internship, new 
hires are required to participate in a formal training program. To meet 
this requirement, inspector trainees participate in training modules at 
the National Mine Health and Safety Academy--a training center run by 
MSHA that conducts a variety of education and training programs in 
health and safety and related subjects for federal mine inspectors and 
other government mining and industry personnel. Each module lasts for 3 
to 4 weeks and is interspersed by periods of time when inspector 
trainees return to their districts for on-the-job training with 
experienced inspectors. Training classes include mine rescue, accident 
prevention, investigations, inspection procedures, mine emergency 
procedures, mine technology, and management, among others. Some of the 
courses include practicing techniques in the Mine Academy's mine lab to 
provide the new inspectors with training in a simulated mine 
environment. Mine Academy officials reported that new inspectors can 
complete the formal training in 11 months but are expected to continue 
with structured on-the-job training throughout the duration of their 
participation in the FCIP. Each inspector trainee also develops an 
Individual Development Plan, which guides and documents the training 
and development process. Inspectors with relatively little experience 
(and hired at the lower end of the pay scale) participate in the FCIP 
longer--3 years instead of 2 years--to give the agency time to assess 
their performance and knowledge before a decision is made on whether to 
convert them to permanent employee status. While the internship period 
serves to develop the inspectors, it also doubles as an opportunity to 
determine their quality and compatibility with the agency. Although new 
inspectors participate in a 2-to 3-year training program , district 
managers and Mine Academy officials agreed that, realistically, new 
inspectors can take up to 5 years to become fully competent and 
confident in their roles as underground coal mine inspectors. 

MSHA's Human Capital Plan Does Not Adequately Project Its Workforce 
Needs: 

While the improvements MSHA has made to its recruiting process are an 
important part of addressing impending retirements, the agency has not 
developed a long-term strategy for replacing mine inspectors. MSHA has 
developed a human capital strategic plan that declares it is designed 
to shift the basis of human resources planning from a reactive and 
passive model to a proactive competency-based model. However, according 
to our review of the plan and discussions with MSHA officials, the 
agency has not demonstrated how it plans to address the large number of 
retirements of its inspector workforce in the coming years. 

MSHA estimates that over 40 percent of its inspectors will be eligible 
for retirement by 2012 (see table 1).[Footnote 8] 

Table 1: Number of Underground Coal Mine Inspectors and Those Eligible 
for Retirement by 2012: 

Number of underground coal mine inspectors; 
District office: 1: 6; 
District office: 2: 38; 
District office: 3: 39; 
District office: 4: 71; 
District office: 5: 35; 
District office: 6: 56; 
District office: 7: 52; 
District office: 8: 24; 
District office: 9: 26; 
District office: 10: 16; 
District office: 11: 14; 
District office: Total: 377. 

Number of underground coal mine inspectors eligible to retire within 5 
years; 
District office: 1: 3; 
District office: 2: 23; 
District office: 3: 15; 
District office: 4: 36; 
District office: 5: 12; 
District office: 6: 16; 
District office: 7: 13; 
District office: 8: 10; 
District office: 9: 13; 
District office: 10: 8; 
District office: 11: 5; 
District office: Total: 154. 

Percentage eligible to retire within 5 years; 
District office: 1: 50%; 
District office: 2: 61%; 
District office: 3: 38%; 
District office: 4: 51%; 
District office: 5: 34%; 
District office: 6: 29%; 
District office: 7: 25%; 
District office: 8: 42%; 
District office: 9: 50%; 
District office: 10: 50%; 
District office: 11: 36%; 
District office: Total: 41%. 

Source: GAO analysis of MSHA data. 

Note: Data are as of January 31, 2007. 

[End of table] 

MSHA reported that, in the last 3 years, between 32 and 47 percent of 
the coal mine enforcement employees eligible to retire actually did so 
in the first year of eligibility. 

Human resources officials explained some steps they are taking to 
monitor the retirements in each district, such as maintaining 
communication with the district managers so that, when a retirement is 
announced, the agency can authorize the district manager to begin the 
process to hire a candidate from the job fairs. In addition, these 
officials explained that MSHA is about to start a new program to 
prepare for the loss of supervisors and managers, which will consist of 
a 1-year training program. Despite these steps, the agency has not 
developed a strategic plan that demonstrates how it will address the 
challenges in a manner that is clearly linked to achieving its mission 
and goals. For example, the plan does not adequately take into account 
the potential increases in future hiring and the time necessary to 
fully train replacements. 

Further, district officials expressed concern over the retirements and 
loss of highly experienced coal mine inspectors, and the impact these 
challenges have on achieving the goals of the agency. For example, one 
district official told us that recent retirements have left the 
district short-handed and expressed concern over the inspectors' 
ability to complete the required annual mine inspections on time. 

MSHA officials told us they generally hire replacements only after a 
current inspector leaves, which prevents having a period of overlap 
during which experienced inspectors likely to retire soon and newly 
hired inspectors are both on board. They also said that, given the long 
time it takes to train new inspectors, having this overlap would assist 
them to better manage their workload because it would allow experienced 
inspectors to train their replacements before they retired. The 
officials explained that budget restrictions contribute to this 
approach. 

GAO has reported on effective strategies for workforce planning that 
require a more strategic outlook to meeting the challenges of the 
future and developing a process for monitoring and evaluating an 
agency's goals.[Footnote 9] Strategic human capital planning that is 
integrated with broader organizational strategic planning is critical 
in ensuring that agencies have the talent they need for future 
challenges, especially as the federal government faces a large wave of 
retirements. Among other elements, strategic planning serves as a tool 
to help agencies address challenges in a manner that is clearly linked 
to achieving their mission and goals. For example, GAO reported on an 
approach the Social Security Administration is using to mitigate the 
impact of retirements on its workforce and broader agency goals. By 
using data to make long-term projections, the agency was able to design 
a transition program to ensure that experienced employees were 
available in critical areas of the agency and that the institutional 
knowledge would not be lost because of turnover. The agency revisits 
the projections on a regular basis and uses the information to address 
broader agency goals for improvement. 

Conclusions: 

MSHA has taken significant steps to reform its process to recruit and 
hire new mine inspectors. However, the high attrition expected over the 
next 5 years, coupled with the amount of time needed to train new 
inspectors to become proficient at their duties, means the agency could 
jeopardize these successes without a clear and well-thought-out plan 
that addresses the expected turnover in its experienced workforce. 
While the agency has data on expected retirements and its recent 
attrition, it has not utilized this information in a strategic approach 
to prepare for the longer-term needs of the agency. Because MSHA does 
not utilize the data it already collects, and has not developed 
measurable goals, the agency's ability to monitor and evaluate its 
progress toward meeting its human capital goals is inhibited. 

Recommendation for Executive Action: 

Given the long lead time needed to train new inspectors to replace 
those retiring, MSHA needs to focus its planning efforts on estimating 
and managing the large number of expected retirements. To begin this 
process, we recommend that the agency engage in a strategic planning 
effort that utilizes the data it collects on expected retirements and 
actual attrition to develop goals that can be monitored and evaluated. 

Agency Comments: 

We obtained comments on a draft of this report from MSHA. These 
comments are reproduced in appendix I. 

In general, MSHA agreed that it can continue to enhance strategic 
planning in the area of human capital. However, in response to the 
number of retirements expected, MSHA officials commented that only 15 
percent of its workforce will retire in the coming years. These data 
are based on calculations that factor in the entire underground coal 
inspector workforce, as opposed to just the number of inspectors 
eligible for retirement. Our analysis focused on the number of 
inspectors eligible for retirement who actually retired the first year 
they were eligible. We found that between 32 and 47 percent of 
retirement-eligible inspectors are likely to leave MSHA in the first 
year of eligibility. Therefore, MSHA's succession planning should focus 
on the number of inspectors who are eligible for retirement over the 
next 5 years. Understanding this population will help the agency plan 
for the potential impact on its experienced workforce and allow the 
agency to identify the needs of the remaining workforce, such as 
training less experienced staff and identifying supervisors to replace 
those who leave. 

MSHA also stated in its response that the hiring of additional 
enforcement staff as a result of funds provided by an emergency 
supplemental appropriations bill passed in 2006 will effectively reduce 
mass retirements because of the increased number of less tenured 
employees. In addition, MSHA commented that it conducts exhaustive 
reviews to identify where current and future vacancies exist and where 
industry shifts require MSHA to adjust its workforce. The agency also 
noted that it has planned its recruitment strategy to hire enough 
inspectors in fiscal year 2007 to mitigate the impact of expected 
retirements this year. While these actions are commendable, they are 
examples of actions that should be tied to specific, measurable goals 
in the agency's strategic human capital plan. This would provide 
accountability and allow better oversight by entities such as GAO and 
the Congress. 

We are sending copies of this report to the Secretary of Labor, 
relevant congressional committees, and other interested parties. Copies 
will be made available to others upon request. In addition, the report 
will be available at no charge on GAO's Web site at http://www.gao.gov. 
Please contact me at (202) 512-7215 if you or your staff have any 
questions about this report. Revae Moran, Assistant Director; Sara L. 
Schibanoff, Analyst-in-Charge; and Lerone C. Reid made key 
contributions to this report. Sheila R. McCoy provided legal 
assistance. 

Sincerely yours, 

Signed by: 

Daniel Bertoni: 
Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues: 

List of Congressional Requesters: 

The Honorable Robert C. Byrd: 
Chairman: 
Committee on Appropriations: 
United States Senate: 

The Honorable Edward M. Kennedy: 
Chairman: 
The Honorable Michael B. Enzi: 
Ranking Member: 
Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions: 
United States Senate: 

The Honorable Tom Harkin: 
Chairman: 
The Honorable Arlen Specter: 
Ranking Member: 
Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and 
Related Agencies: 
Committee on Appropriations: 
United States Senate: 

The Honorable Patty Murray: 
Chair: 
The Honorable Johnny Isakson: 
Ranking Member: 
Subcommittee on Employment and Workplace Safety: 
Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions: 
United States Senate: 

The Honorable George Miller: 
Chairman: 
Committee on Education and Labor: 
House of Representatives: 

The Honorable John D. Rockefeller IV: 
United States Senate: 

The Honorable Shelley Moore Capito: 
House of Representatives: 

The Honorable Alan B. Mollohan: 
House of Representatives: 

The Honorable Nick Rahall: 
House of Representatives: 

[End of section] 

Appendix I: Comments from the Department of Labor: 

U.S. Department of Labor: 
Mine Safety and Health Administration: 
1100 Wilson Boulevard: 
Arlington, Virginia 22209-3939: 

May 01 2007: 

Mr. Daniel Bertoni: 
Director: 
Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues: 
General Accounting Office: 
441 G. Street, NW: 
Washington, DC 20548: 

Dear Mr. Bertoni: 

Thank you for the opportunity to comment on your draft report titled 
"MSHA's Revised Hiring Process Has Improved the Agency's Recruiting 
Efforts, but Its Human Capital Strategic Plan Does Not Adequately 
Project or Address Its Future Workforce Needs." We agree that MSHA, 
like many federal agencies, can continue to enhance strategic planning 
in the area of human capital. However, we take issue with your 
conclusions. Specifically, several vital human capital issues and 
planning efforts were discussed with your staff both during the course 
of the review and during your exit conference but are not included in 
the draft report. 

GAO Conclusion: "MSHA has taken significant steps to reform its process 
to recruit and hire new mine inspectors. However, the high attrition 
expected over the next 5 years, coupled with the amount of time needed 
to train new inspectors to become proficient at their duties, means the 
agency could jeopardize these successes without a clear and well- 
thought-out plan that addresses the expected turnover in its 
experienced workforce." 

MSHA Response: We again assert that being eligible to retire is much 
less a dominant factor than employees projected to actually retire. 
Although we estimate that 40% of underground inspectors will become 
eligible to retire in 1-5 years, the data trends show that at most 15% 
actually will retire. More employees stay on the job after reaching 
eligibility due to the FERS benefit system and other personal 
decisions. 

Moreover, the MINER Act of 2006 mandates that the agency hire an 
additional 170 enforcement employees within the Coal program using 
supplemental funds supplied by Congress. The inclusion of new hires, 
both as supplemental and back-fill employees, effectively reduces the 
percentage of inspectors eligible to retire within 5 years. Finally, 
the increased population of less tenured government employees greatly 
reduces the probability that at any given time MSHA will face mass 
retirement. 

GAO Conclusion: "While the agency has data on expected retirements and 
its recent attrition, it has not utilized this information in a 
strategic approach to prepare for the longer-term needs of the agency. 
Because MSHA does not utilize the data it already collects, and has not 
developed measurable goals, the agency's ability to monitor and 
evaluate its progress toward meeting its human capital goals is 
inhibited." 

MSHA Response: MSHA currently engages in extensive strategic planning 
and utilizes collected data for employee attrition and retirement to 
inform its strategic hiring goals. While the 2006 DOL human capital 
plan did not specifically address the strategic approaches MSHA 
instituted, we have planned and implemented strategic efforts to 
replace inspectors lost to attrition and retirement. Since July 1, 
2006, MSHA augmented already existing strategic hiring plans by 
revamping our strategy in the following ways: 

* Human Resources and Coal headquarters and field management conduct 
exhaustive reviews to pinpoint areas of concern for the immediate 
future (1-3 years), including existing vacancies, anticipated 
vacancies, and industry shifts that require MSHA to adjust its 
workforce. This review and analysis is an ongoing, dynamic process, 
with projections and targeted hiring undergoing constant refinement 
based on attrition and industry shifts. This flexibility allows MSHA to 
compensate for periods and geographic locations of greatest need. For 
example, we recently conducted repeat job fairs in the same districts 
only three months apart to account for our forecasted needs. 

* MSHA realizes that the nature of our mission and the training needed 
to accomplish our mission require a qualified pool of talent from which 
to add new human capital. Traditionally, MSHA relied on lapse rates to 
inform the Agency hiring strategy on upcoming vacancies due to 
attrition and retirement. To mitigate this situation and proactively 
address the issue, MSHA's strategic plan for FY 2007 includes front-
loading the numbers targeted for recruitment through 09/30/2007 by 56, 
which is the approximate number of inspectors eligible to retire. This 
decision reflects MSHA's desire to hedge against the trends discussed 
above and prepare a qualified work force from which to draw future 
inspectors. 

Again, thank you for the opportunity to comment on your draft report. 
We are certainly open to dialogue with your staff regarding any 
additional strategic planning actions needed beyond what MSHA is 
currently doing. 

If you have any questions, please contact David Meyer at (202) 693-9802 
or Brent Carpenter at (202) 693-9782. 

Sincerely, 

Signed by: 

Richard E. Stickler: 
Assistant Secretary for Mine Safety and Health: 

[End of section] 

(130653): 

FOOTNOTES 

[1] GAO, Mine Safety: MSHA Devotes Substantial Efforts to Ensuring the 
Safety and Health of Coal Miners, but Its Programs Could Be 
Strengthened, GAO-03-945 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 5, 2003). 

[2] An associate solicitor of the Department of Labor issued a 
memorandum in 1991 analyzing the statutory qualification requirements 
for inspectors. He concluded that the 5 year requirement, which is 
qualified by the statement "to a maximum extent feasible," is not an 
absolute requirement. Therefore, MSHA can appoint individuals who lack 
5 years of experience but meet one of the three qualifications noted 
above. 

[3] These data are as of February 2007. The non coal interns were hired 
as inspector trainees for metal/nonmetal mining operations. Metal and 
nonmetal mining is separated into four broad categories: metal, 
nonmetal, stone, and sand and gravel. 

[4] Labor defined the "legal, government, and jurisprudence" area as 
knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, legal 
practices and documents, government regulations, executive orders, 
agency rules, government organization and functions, and the democratic 
political process. 

[5] According to an MSHA human resources official, this time frame 
begins when an applicant receives a job offer and includes time for the 
agency to review the results from a medical exam and drug test. It does 
not include any time that an applicant might be placed on a waiting 
list if the district does not have a job opening available. 

[6] MSHA can offer new mine inspectors positions under the government 
general schedule (GS) that range from GS-5 to GS-11. As of January 
2007, the potential pay ranged from $25,623 to $61,068. 

[7] For example, between October 2006 and April 2007, MSHA held job 
fairs in each of its 11 coal mine districts. 

[8] MSHA faces similar shortages in its engineer and scientist 
workforce in coming years. See GAO, Mine Safety: Better Oversight and 
Coordination by MSHA and Other Federal Agencies Could Improve Safety 
for Underground Coal Miners, GAO-07-622 (Washington, D.C.: May 16, 
2007). 

[9] GAO, Human Capital: Federal Workforce Challenges in the 21ST 
Century, GAO-07-556T (Washington, D.C.: March 6, 2007); GAO, Human 
Capital: Key Principles for Effective Strategic Workforce Planning, GAO-
04-39 (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 11, 2003).

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